Role of Activated Carbon Modified by H3PO4 and K2CO3 From Natural Adsorbent for Removal of Pb (II) From Aqueous Solutions

  • Manoochehri, Mahboobeh ;
  • Khorsand, Ameneh ;
  • Hashemi, Elham
  • Received : 2012.03.20
  • Accepted : 2012.04.24
  • Published : 2012.07.31


Most heavy metals are well-known toxic and carcinogenic agents and when discharged into wastewater represent a serious threat to the human population and the fauna and flora of the receiving water bodies. The present study aims to develop a procedure for Pb (II) removal. This procedure is based on using powdered activated carbon, which was prepared from walnut shells that were generated as plant wastes and modified with potassium carbonate and phosphoric acid as chemical agents. The main parameters, such as effect of pH, effect of sorbent dosage, Pb (II) concentrations, and various contact times influence the sorption process. The experimental results were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models. The kinetic study of Pb (II) on activated carbon from walnut shells was performed based on pseudo- first order and pseudo- second order equations. The data indicate that the adsorption kinetics follow the pseudo- second order rate. The procedure was successfully applied for Pb (II) removal from aqueous solutions.


Pb (II);walnut shells;phosphoric acid;potassium carbonate;isotherms


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