The Effect of Job-stress and Self-efficacy on Depression of Clinical Nurses

임상간호사의 직무 스트레스와 자기효능감이 우울에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2012.07.17
  • Accepted : 2012.08.08
  • Published : 2012.08.31


Purpose: The purpose was to investigate the relations among job-stress, self-efficacy, and depression of nurses. Methods: The data were collected from a random sample of 213 nurses working in two general hospitals of a local area. A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess the level of job-stress, self-efficacy, and depression. Results: The mean score of job-stress was 49.1 and the score of job demand was the highest. The mean score of self-efficacy was 3.4, and depression was 18.2. The prevalence of depression was very high. The job-stress and depression were negatively correlated with self-efficacy. Hierarchial multiple regression showed that the self-efficacy and the high job demand, lack of reward, and organizational injustice of job-stress explained 53% of the variance for the nurses' depression. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the self-efficacy and job stress, especially job demand, organizational injustice, and lack of reward contributed to the depression. In order to prevent and decrease the depression, the developing programs to improve self-efficacy are needed.


Nurse;Job stress;Self-efficacy;Depression


  1. Bandura, A. (Ed.) (1995). Self efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Bong, Y. S., So, H. S., & You, H. S. (2009). A study on the relationship between job stress, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction in nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 15 (3), 425-433.
  3. Byun, D., & Yom, Y. (2009). Factors affecting the burnout of clinical nurses-focused on emotional labor. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 15 (3), 444- 454.
  4. Chang, S. J., Koh, S. B., Kang, D., Kim, S., Kang, M., Lee, C., et al. (2005). Developing an occupational stress scale for Korean employees. Korean Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 17 (4), 297-317.
  5. Cho, J. J., Kim, J. Y., Chang, S. J., Fiedler, N., Koh, S. B., Crabtree, B. F., et al. (2008). Occupational stress and depression in Korean employees. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 82 (1), 47-57.
  6. Chun, K. K., Kwon, G. D., & Kim, S. G. (1999). Development of revised Korean version of CES-D. Journal of Social Science Research, 6 (1), 429-451.
  7. Eaton, W. W., Muntaner, C., Bovasso, G., & Smith, C. (2001). Socioeconomic status and depressive syndrome: The role of inter and intra generational mobility, government assistance, and work environment. Journal of Health Social Behaviors, 42 (3), 277-294.
  8. Elkins, G., Cook, T., Dove, J., Markova, D., Marcus, J. D., Meyer, T., et al. (2010). Perceived stress among nursing and administration staff related to accreditation. Clinical Nursing Research, 19 (4), 376-386.
  9. Greenglass, E. R., Burke, R. J., & Moore, K. A. (2003). Reactions to increased workload: Effects on professional efficacy of nurses. Applied Psychology, 52 (4), 580-597.
  10. Han, K. H. (2005). The moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relationships between dispositional trait and job burnout, Korean Journal of Business Administration, 18 (2), 531- 555.
  11. Iacovides, A., Fountoulakis, K. N., Kaprinis, S., & Kaprinis, G. (2002). The relationship between job stress, burnout and clinical depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 75, 209- 221.
  12. Imam, S. S. (2007, May). Shere et al. general self-efficacy scale: Dimensionality, internal consistency, and temporal stability. The Redesigning Pedagogy: Culture, Knowledge, and Understanding Conference, Singapore.
  13. Jang, D. H. (2007). Self-efficacy is an effect modifier on the association between job-stress and depression scores, Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing, 16 (2), 177-187.
  14. Jung, K. Y., Lee, H. J., Lee, Y. I., Kim, J. I., & Kim, Y. G. (2007). The effects of job stress for depression in clinical nurses. Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing, 16 (2), 158-167.
  15. Kim, J. H., Hyun, M. Y., & Kim, S. Y. (2009). Job stress, depression, social support, and coping strategies of clinical nurses. Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing, 18 (2),219-231.
  16. Kim, M. S., & Park, Y. B. (2008). The effect of self-efficacy and empowerment on perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors of nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 14 (3), 268- 277.
  17. Ko, Y., & Kang, K. (2006). A study on the relationship between self-efficacy, collective-efficacy, and job stress in the nursing staff. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 12 (2), 276-286.
  18. Lee, N. H. (2011). A study on the relationship among self-efficacy of psychiatric nurses, job stress, and burnout. Nursing Science, 23 (2), 47-59.
  19. Lee, W. C. (1997). Occupational stress of hospital workers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Seoul National University, Seoul.
  20. Luszczynska, A., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). The general self-efficacy scale: Multicultural validation studies. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 139 (5), 439- 457.
  21. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (1999). Stress at work. Retrieved July 1, 2012, from http://
  22. Park, S. M., Jang, I. S., & Choi, J. S. (2011). Affecting factors of nurses' burnout in secondary general hospitals. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 17 (4), 474- 483.
  23. Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mcrcandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51, 663- 671.
  24. Stewart, W. F., Ricci, J. A., Chee, E., Hahn, S. R., & Morganstein, D. (2003). Cost of lost productive work time among US workers with depression. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 289 (23), 3135-3144.
  25. Wells, K. B., Hays, R. D., Burnam, M. A., Rogers, W., Greenfield, S., & Ware, J. E. Jr. (1989). Detection of depressive disorder for patients receiving prepaid or fee-for service care. Journal of American Medical Association, 262 (23), 3298- 3302.
  26. Yang, Y. (2011). A study on burnout, emotional labor, and selfefficacy in nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 17 (4), 423-431.
  27. Yoon, S. (2009). Occupational stress and depression in clinical nurses-using Korean Occupational Stress Scales. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 15 (3), 463-470.

Cited by

  1. A Path Analysis on Morale among Staff of Long-term Care Insurance in National Health Insurance Corporation vol.21, pp.3, 2012,
  2. Relationship between emotional labor and occupational stress of dental counselor vol.13, pp.5, 2013,
  3. The Mediating Effects of Self-efficacy on the relationship between Job-stress and Depression vol.14, pp.10, 2013,
  4. A Comparative Study on Job Stress and Satisfaction between Ward Nurses and Outpatient Nurses vol.22, pp.2, 2013,
  5. Influence of Job Stress and State of Sleep on the Depression of Emergency Medical Technicians vol.22, pp.3, 2013,
  6. The Relationships among Emotional Intelligence, Interpersonal Relationship, and Job Satisfaction of Clinical Nurses vol.20, pp.3, 2014,
  7. The Effects of Self-efficacy and Collective Efficacy on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Nurses vol.23, pp.3, 2014,
  8. Effects of Psychosocial Work Environment on Stress, Depression, Sleep Disorder, and Burnout of General Hospital Nurses vol.24, pp.2, 2015,
  9. Influencing Factors on Presenteeism of Clinical Nurses vol.24, pp.4, 2015,
  10. Effects of Emotional Labor and Self-efficacy on Psychosocial Stress of Nurses vol.21, pp.1, 2015,
  11. Relationships among Nursing Work Environment, Job Embeddedness, and Turnover Intention in Nurses vol.22, pp.3, 2016,