Comparison of Meat Color and Nutritional Composition of m. longissimus lumborum from Domestic Fed Hanwoo, Holstein and Imported Angus Steers

  • Oh, Mi-Ra (Animal Products Research and Development Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Park, Beom-Young (Animal Products Research and Development Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Seong, Pil-Nam (Animal Products Research and Development Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Cho, Soohyun (Animal Products Research and Development Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Kang, Keun-Ho (Animal Products Research and Development Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Jin-Hyung (Animal Products Research and Development Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Jeong, Seok-Geun (Animal Products Research and Development Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Lee, Jun-Soo (Department of food science and technology, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Jeong, Dawoon (Department of Animal Science, Chonbuk National University)
  • Received : 2012.07.09
  • Accepted : 2012.12.15
  • Published : 2012.12.31


This study was conducted to investigate the carcass characteristics and nutritional composition of longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of domestic steer beef (Hanwoo and Holstein born and raised in Korea) and imported beef (Angus imported from Australia, raised for about 6 months in Korea). A total of twelve steers (4 steers per each breed and quality grade 2) were slaughtered, LL muscles were separated and stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. The pH values of Holstein meat were notably higher than those of Hanwoo, and WHC values were similar between Hanwoo and Holstein, but Angus showed some differences. The WHC of the LL muscle from Hanwoo was better than those from Holstein and Angus when stored for fourteen days. The CIE $a^*$, $b^*$, and $h^0$ values of the LL muscle from Hanwoo were significantly higher than those of Angus at day 7 (p<0.05). Oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin contents were not significantly different among three breeds at days 7 and 14. In the intra-muscular fat contents, the LL muscle of Hanwoo was significantly higher than Holstein, whereas the moisture and ash contents tended to be lower than the others. In mineral contents, P and Zn contents in the LL muscle of Holstein were higher than the other breeds, and K contents was higher in Hanwoo and Holstein meat than Angus.


  1. Abril, M., Campo, M. M., Onenc, A., Sañudo, C., Albertí, P. and Negueruela, A. I. 2001. Beef colour evoluation as a function of ultimate pH. Meat Sci. 58:69-78.
  2. Andersen, H. J., Oksbjerg, N., Young, J. F. and Therkildsen, M. 2005. Feeding and meat quality - a future approach. Meat Sci. 70:543-554.
  3. Albrecht, E., Teuscher, F., Ender, K. and Wegner, J. 2006. Growth-and breed-related changes of marbling characteristics in cattle. J. Amim. Sci., 84, 1067-1075.
  4. AOAC. 1995. Offical Methods of Analysis 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC. pp.13-15.
  5. Boles, J. A. and Swan, J. E. 2002. Processing and sensory characteristics of cooked rost beef: effect of breed, age, gender and storage conditions. Meat Sci. 62:419-427.
  6. Chambaz, A., Scheeder, M. R. L., Kreuzer, M. and Dufey, P. A. 2003. Meat quality of Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin steers compared at the same intramuscular fat content. Meat Sci. 63:491-500.
  7. Cuvelier, C., Clinquart, a., Hocquette, J. F., Cabaraux, J. F., Dufrasne, I., Istasse, L. and Hornick. 2006. Comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus bteeds. Meat Sci. 74:522-531.
  8. Davi,s G. W., Smith, G. C., Carpenter, Z. I. and Cross, H. R. 1975. Relationships of quality indicators to palatability attributes of pork loins. J. Anim. Sci. 41:1305-1313.
  9. Demos, B. P. and Mandigo, R. W. 1996. Color of fresh, frozen and cooked ground beef patties manufactured with mechanically recovered neck bone lean. Meat Sci. 42:415-429.
  10. Franco, D., Bispo, E., Gonalez, L., Vázquez, J. A. and Mareno, T. 2009. Effect of finishing and ageing on quality attributes of loin from the meat of holstein-Fresian cull cows. Meat Sci. 83:484-491.
  11. Jacobs, J. A., Miler, J. C., Sauters, E. A., Howes, A, D., Araji, A. A., Gregory, T. L. and Hust, C. E. 1977. Bulls versus steers II-Palatability and retail acceptance. J. Anim. Sci. 46: 699-702.
  12. Kang, J. O., Lee, J. H. and Kim, C. J. 1997. Studies on the color, pH and bacterial count of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef imported beef. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 39:275-280.
  13. Kim, C. J. and Lee, E. S. 2003. Effect of quality grade on the chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of Hanwoo beef. Meat Sci. 63:397-405.
  14. Kim, I. S., Lee, S. O., Kang, S, N., Byun, J. S. and Lee, M. 1999. The physicochemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of Han-Woo and imported chilled beef loins. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. Resour. 19: 331-33.
  15. Kim, J. H., Jeong, D., In, T. S., Seong, P. N., Cho, S. H., Park, B.Y., Lee, J. M., Kim, D. H., Ahn, J. N. and Kim, D. S. 2008a. Effect of current condition of electrical stimulation on physical characteristics of m. of longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo cow. The 13th Animal Science Congress of the Asian- Australasian Association of Animal Production Society, Vietnam, pp.515.
  16. Kim, J. H., Kim, H. K., Park, B. Y., Cho, S. H., Hwang, I. H., Kim, D. H. and Lee, J. M. 2005. Changes in pH, temperature, R-values and calpain activity of M. longissimus from Hanwoo steer during rigor development. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. Resour. 25:310-315.
  17. Kim, K. H., Kim, Y. S., lee, Y. K. and Baik, M. G. 2000. Postmortem muscle glycolysis and meat quality characteristics of intact male Korean Native (Hanwoo) cattle. Meat Sci. 55: 47-52.
  18. Kim, N. K., Cho, S. H., Lee, S. H., Park, H. R., Lee, C. S., Cho, Y. M., Choy, Y. H., Yoon, D. H., Im, S. K. and Park, E. W. 2008b. Proteins in Longissimus muscle of Korean native cattle and their relationship to meat quality. Meat Sci. 80:1068-1073.
  19. Kim, Y. S., Liang, C. Y., Kim, J. Y., Park, Y. S., Hwang, H. S. and Lee, S. K. 2002. Effects of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on meat color stability of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) bull beef during retail display. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. Resour. 22:108-114.
  20. King, D. A., Morgan, W. W., Miller, R. K., Sanders, J. O., Lunt, D. K., Taylor, J. F., Gill, C. A. and Savell, J. W. 2006. Carcass merit between and among family groups of Bos indicus crossbred steers and heifers. Meat Sci. 72:496-502.
  21. Krzywicki. K. 1982. The determination of haem pigments in meat. Meat Sci. 7:29-36.
  22. Laakkonen. E., Wellington, G. H. and Skerbon, J. W. 1970. Low temperature longtime heating of bovine. I. Changes in tenderness, water binding capacity, pH and amount of water-soluble component. J. Food Sci. 35:175-177.
  23. Landon, M. E., Hedrick, H. B. and Thompson, G. B. 1978. Live animal performance and carcass characteristics of beef bullocks and steer. J. Anim. Sci. 47:151-155.
  24. Lawrie, R. A. 1985. Meat science. 4th ed, Lawrie, R. A. Pergamon Press., p82.
  25. Lee, J. M., Choi, J. H., Oh, M. H., Kim, Y. S., Cheon, D. W., Seo, S. C., Hwang, K. S. and Jang, A. 2010. Effect of sex on quality grade factors, physicochemical and sensory traits of longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo. Korean J. Food. Sci. Anim. Resour. 30: 321-327.
  26. Lee, J. M., Kim, T. W., Kim, J. H., Cho, S. H., Seong, P. N., Jung, M. O., Cho, Y. M., Park, B. Y. and Kim, D. H. 2009. Comparison of chemical, physical and sensory traits of longissimus lumborum Hanwoo beef and Australian Wagyu beef. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. Resour. 29:91-98.
  27. Mancini, R. A. and Hunt, M. C. 2005. Current research in meat color. Meat Sci. 71:100-121.
  28. Mitsumoto, M. 1992. Studies on measurement and improvement of beef quality. Ph.D. Dissertation in Kyoto University. Japan.
  29. Moon, W. W., Yang, H. S., Park, G. B. and Joo, S. T. 2006. The relationship of physiological maturity and marbling judged according to Korean grading system to meat quality traits of Hanwoo beef females. Meat Sci. 74:516-521.
  30. Panjono, Kang, S. M., Lee, I. S. and Lee, S. K. 2009. Carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) from different sex condition, rising altitudes and slaughter seasons. Livest. Sci. 123: 283-287.
  31. Park, B. S. and Yoo, I. J. 1994. Comparison of fatty acid composition among imported beef, Holstein steer beef and Hanwoo beef. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 36:69-75.
  32. Park, B. Y., Cho, S. H., Yoo, Y. M., Kim, J.H., Chae, H. S., Ahn, J. N., Lee, J. M. and Yoon, S. K. 2001. Effect of carcass temperature at 3hr post-mortem on pork quality. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. 43:949-954.
  33. Park, B. Y., Cho, S. H., Yoo, Y. M., Kim, J. H., Lee. J. M., Joung, S. K. and Kim, Y. K. 2000. Effect of Intramuscular fat contents on the physicochemical properties of beef longissimus dorsi from Hanwoo. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. 42: 189-194.
  34. Park, B. Y., Cho, S. H., Yoo, Y. M., Lee, S. J., Chae, H. S., Kim, J. H., Hong, S. K. and Lee, J. M. 2002. Physicochemical properties for sirloin domestic fed imported beef cattle. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. Resour. 22:218-221.
  35. SAS. 2000. SAS/STAT user's guide. 8th ed. SAS Institute Inc. Cary NC., USA.
  36. Schor, A., Cossu, M. E., Picallo, A., Ferrer, J. M., Naón, J. J. G. and Colombatto, D. 2008. Nutritional and eating quality of Argentinean beef : A review. Meat Sci. 79: 408422.
  37. Sitz, B. M., Calkins, C. R., Feuz, D. M., Umberger, W. J. and Eskridge, K. M. 2005. Consumer sensory acceptance and value of domestic, Canadian, and Australian gress-fed beef steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2863-2868.
  38. Warren, H. E., Scollan, N. D., Enser, M., Hughes, S. I., Richardwon and Wodd, J. E. 2008. Effect of breed and concentration or grass silage diet on beef quality in cattle of 3 ages. II: Meat stablity and flavour. Meat Sci. 78:270-278.
  39. Warriss, P. D. 1979. The extraction of haem pigments from fresh meat. J. Food Techn. 14:75-80.
  40. Yu, L. H., Lim, D. G., Jeong, S. G., In, T. S., Kim, J. H., Ahn, C. N., Kim, C. J. and Park, B. Y. 2008. Effects of temperature conditioning on postmortem changes in physicochemical properties in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo). Meat Sci. 79:64-70.

Cited by

  1. Association of carcass weight with quality and functional properties of beef from Hanwoo steers vol.55, pp.5, 2015,