- Volume 13 Issue 12
DOI QR Code
Cervical Cancer Screening in Turkey: A Community-based Experience After 60 Years of Pap Smear Usage
- Demirhindi, Hakan (Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University) ;
- Nazlican, Ersin (Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University) ;
- Akbaba, Muhsin (Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University)
- Published : 2012.12.31
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in females in the World with around 500,000 new cases occurring annually, but the first in the developing countries with a high mortality if not diagnosed early. Papanicolau (Pap) smear is a cheap, easy-to-apply and widely accepted test which has been long used to detect cervical cancer at very early stages. However, despite being available for nearly 60 years, the test can hardly be considered to have become successfully applied in many communities. We aimed in this study to present the results of a screening survey for cervical cancer which targeted a women population aged between 35 and 40 living in a semi-rural area in the province of Hatay, located in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey, with specific aims of increasing early diagnosis, education and raising population awareness about cancers. This community-based descriptive study covered 512 women between 35 and 40 years of age living at Armutlu with a mean age of
Cancer;prevention;cervical cancer;pap smear;screening;community
- ACOG (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist) (2009). ACOG practice bulletin. No:109-2009. Obstet Gynecol, 114, 1409-20. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181c6f8a4
- Acikgoz A, Ergor G (2011). Cervical cancer risk levels in Turkey and compliance to the national cervical cancer screening standard. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 923-7
- Balaha MH, Moghannum MS, Al Ghowinem N, Al Omran S (2011). Cytological pattern of cervical Papanicolaou smear in eastern region of Saudi Arabia. J Cytol, 28, 173-7. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9371.86343
- Chen YY, You SL, Chen CA et al (2009). Effectiveness of national cervical cancer screening programme in Taiwan: 12-year experiences. Br J Cancer, 101, 174-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6605139
- Chew GK, Cruickshank ME, Smith AP (2004). Abnormal cervical smear. In: Oxford Textbook of Primary Medical Care. (Eds: Jones R, Britten N, Culpepper L, Gass D, Mant D, Grol R, Silagy C). Oxford University Press, p.878-84 http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198565802.doLast accessed: 15 June 2012.
- Cronje HS (2005). Screening for cervical cancer in the developing world. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, 19, 517-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2005.02.005
- Elovainio L, Nieminen P, Miller AB (1997). Impact of cancer screening on women's health. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 58, 137-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7292(97)02859-2
- Eroglu C, Unlu Y, Eryilmaz MA, Gonenc O (2008). Konya egitim ve arastirma hastanesi Kanser Erken Teshis-Tarama ve Egitim Merkezi servikovajinal smear tarama deneyimi (Cervicovaginal Smear Screening Experience Early Cancer Diagnosis-Screening and Education Center Konya Education and Research Hospital). Jinekoloji-Obstetrik ve Neonatoloji Dergisi. Mart 2008.
- Http://dergi.ztb.gov.tr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=69:cervicovaginal-smear-screeningexperience-early-cancer-diagnosis-screening-andeducation-center-konya-education-and-researchhospital&catid=36:mart2008# Last accessed: 15 June 2012.
- Fiscella K, Franks P (1999). The adequacy of Papanicolaou smears as performed by family physicians and obstetriciangynecologists. J Fam Pract, 48, 294-8.
- Idestrom M, Milsom I, Andersson-Ellstrom A (2002). Knowledge and attitudes about the pap-smear screening program: a population-based study of women aged 20-59 years. Acta Obstet Gynecol, 81, 962-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/j.1600-0412.2002.811011.x
- Kaya M (2009). Halk sagligi yaklasimiyla servikal kanser (Cervical Cancer with Public Health Perspective) (Ed. Akin A.) HUKSAM Yayinlari, Ankara. [http://www.huksam. hacettepe.edu.tr/Turkce/SayfaDosya/ServiksKitabi.pdf] Last accessed: 15 June 2012.
- Mehmetoglu HC, Sadikoglu G, Ozcakir A, Bilgel N (2010). Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: a study from Turkey. N Am J Med Sci, 2, 467-72.
- Morris M, Tortolero-Luna G, Malpica A, et al (1996). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am, 23, 347-410.
- Oner S, Demirhindi H, Erdogan S, Tuncer İ, Akbaba M (2004). Gynecologic examination findings and Pap smear screening results of women in Dogankent, Turkey. Turkish J Public Hlth, 2, 85-91.
- Ozgul N (2010). The State of Cervical Cancer in Turkey and Cervical Cancer Screening Studies. In: Cancer Control in Turkey (Eds.Tuncer AM (chief), Ozgul N, Olcayto E, Gultekin M). Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Health, Pub. No.777, Ankara, pp.379-84. [http://www.calameo.com/books/000713529b152e4a796d3] Last accessed: 15 June 2012.
- Saraiya UB (2003). Preventable but not prevented: the reality of cervical cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 29, 351-9. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1341-8076.2003.00126.x
- Stewart BW, Kleihues P (Eds) (2003). Cancers of the female reproductive tract. World Cancer Report, IARC and WHO. IARC Press, Lyon, France. [http://www.scribd.com/doc/2350813/World-Cancer-Report-2003-Stuart-e-Kleihues-WHO-e-IARC] Last accessed: 15 June 2012.
- Stoler MH (2002). New Bethesda terminology and evidencebased management guidelines for cervical cytology findings. JAMA, 287, 2140-1. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.287.16.2140
- Talukder MS, Huq MH, Haque A (2002). Evaluation of 500 cases of Pap's test in Mymensingh. Mymensingh Med J, 11, 26-8.
- Turkish Ministry of Health (2007). Serviks kanseri taramasi ulusal standartlari. (National (Turkish) standards for cervical screening) (2007) [http://www.ism.gov.tr/indir/mevzuat/genelgeler/G_29052007_1.pdf] Last accessed: 15 June 2012.
- Uysal A, Birsel A (2010). Knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors and pap testing behaviour among turkish women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 345-50.
- WHO (2004). The world health report 2004-changing history. Sadag Imprimerie, France.
- Yang BH, Bray FI, Parkin DM, Sellors JW, Zhang ZF (2004). Cervical cancer as a priority for prevention in different world regions: an evaluation using years of life lost. Int J Cancer, 109, 418-24. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11719
- Zemheri E, Koyuncuer A (2005). Servikal kanserlerin erken tanisinda Pap testinin onemi. Surekli Tip Egitimi Dergisi,14 (1):1-4. [http://www.ttb.org.tr/STED/sted0105/servikal.pdf] Last accessed: 15 June 2012.
- Cervical Cancer in Women with Inflammatory Pap Smears vol.05, pp.01, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4236/jct.2014.51011
- Women's Perceptions and Attitudes about Cervical Cancer in Turkey: Kato's Device as an Alternative to the Pap Smear vol.15, pp.2, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.2.905
- Cervical Cancer Screening in an Early Diagnosis and Screening Center in Mersin, Turkey vol.16, pp.16, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.16.6909
- Initial results of population based cervical cancer screening program using HPV testing in one million Turkish women vol.142, pp.9, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31212
- Socio-cognitive factors influencing Greek lyceum female students’ intention to receive a Pap smear and a vaccine against HPV vol.0, pp.0, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0005