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Inhibition of Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis by the Combination of β-carotene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Human Esophageal Cancer EC9706 Cells

  • Wang, Shao-Kang (Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University) ;
  • Yang, Lei (Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University) ;
  • Wang, Ting-Ting (Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University) ;
  • Huang, Gui-Ling (Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University) ;
  • Yang, Li-Gang (Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University) ;
  • Sun, Gui-Ju (Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University)
  • Published : 2012.12.31

Abstract

Esophageal cancer is a common malignant tumor occurring in human esophageal epithelial tissue. The primary purpose of this paper was to define the effects of ${\beta}$-carotene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$, alone and in combination, on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells. Treatment with different concentrations of ${\beta}$-carotene and/or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$. MTT assay showed that ${\beta}$-carotene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ significantly inhibited proliferation of EC9706 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also demonstrated that ${\beta}$-carotene alone or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ alone caused a marked increase on the induction of apoptosis in EC9706 cells. The percentage of G0/G1-phase cells significantly increased on addition of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ alone, but there were no significant changes with ${\beta}$-carotene alone. These two agents in combination synergistically inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis. Therefore, our results indicate that ${\beta}$-carotene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ in combination may provide a novel strategy for preventing and treating esophageal cancer.

Keywords

${\beta}$-carotene;1,25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$;proliferation;apoptosis;esophageal cancer cells

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