DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Estimation of Time Trends of Incidence of Prostate Canner - an Indian Scenario

  • Lalitha, Krishnappa (Department of Community Medicine, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College) ;
  • Suman, Gadicherla (Department of Community Medicine, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College) ;
  • Pruthvish, Sreekantaiah (Department of Community Medicine, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College) ;
  • Mathew, Aleyamma (Department of Biostatustucs and Epidemiology, Regional Cancer Centre) ;
  • Murthy, Nandagudi S. (Department of Community Medicine, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College)
  • Published : 2012.12.31

Abstract

Background: With increase in life expectancy, adoption of newer lifestyles and screening using prostate specific antigen (PSA), the incidence of prostate cancer is on rise. Globally prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer death in men. The present communication makes an attempt to analyze the time trends in incidence for different age groups of the Indian population reported in different Indian registries using relative difference and regression approaches. Materials and Methods: The data published in Cancer Incidence in Five Continents for various Indian registries for different periods and/or publications by the individual registries served as the source materials. Trends were estimated by computing the mean annual percentage change (MAPC) in the incidence rates using the relative difference between two time periods (latest and oldest) and also by estimation of annual percentage change (EAPC) by the Poisson regression model. Results: Age adjusted incidence rates (AAR) of prostate cancer for the period 2005-2008 ranged from 0.8 (Manipur state excluding Imphal west) to 10.9 (Delhi) per $10^5$ person-years. Age specific incidence rates (ASIR) increased in all PBCRs especially after 55 years showing a peak incidence at +65 years clearly indicating that prostate cancer is a cancer of the elderly. MAPC in crude incidence rate(CR) ranged from 0.14 (Ahmedabad) to 8.6 (Chennai). Chennai also recorded the highest MAPC of 5.66 in ASIR in the age group of 65+. Estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) in the AAR ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 among the three registries. Increase in trend was seen in the 55-64 year age group cohort in many registries and in the 35-44 age group in Metropolitan cities such as Delhi and Mumbai. Conclusions: Several Indian registries have revealed an increasing trend in the incidence of prostate cancer and the mean annual percentage change has ranged from 0.14-8.6.

Keywords

Time trends;incidence;prostate cancer;Indian cancer registries

References

  1. National Cancer Registry Programme(2010). Three year report of population based Cancer Registries, 2006-2008, Incidence and distribution of cancer (First Report of 20 PBCRs in India cancer), Indian Council of Medical Research, Bangalore, India.
  2. Parkin DM, Muir CS, Whelan SL (1992). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. VI, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, IARC Scientific Publication 143.
  3. Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J (2002). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. VIII, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, IARC Scientific Publication 155.
  4. Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, Raymond L, Young J (1997). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. VII, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, IARC Scientific Publication 143.
  5. Perin NN (2001). Global variation in cancer incidence and mortality. Current Sci, 81, 465-74.
  6. Ray A, Ray GN, Murthy NS (2010). Cancer chemoprevention and lifestyle factors. In: Herbal Medicine: A Cancer chemo preventive and therapeutic perspective, Jaypee brothers medical publishers, 122-142.
  7. Ries L, Kosary C, Hankey B, et al (1999). Statistics Review, 1973-96. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.
  8. Sinha R, Anderson DE, McDonald SS, Greenwald P (2003). Cancer Risk and Diet in India. J Postgrad Med, 49, 222-8.
  9. Sunny L (2005). Prostate cancer- an epidemiological study in India, Acta Universitatis Temperensis, Tampere. 1098.
  10. W Hsing, Devesa SS (2001). Trends and patterns of p rostate cancer: what do they suggest? Epidemiologic Reviews, 23, 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.epirev.a000792
  11. Waterhouse JAH, Muir CS, Correa P (1976). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. III, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, IARC Scientific Publication 15.
  12. Waterhouse JAH, Muir CS, Shanmugarathanam K (1982). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. IV, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, IARC Scientific Publication 42.
  13. WHO (2000). International Classification of Diseases for Oncology-10 ICD-O. Third edition. Eds. Fritz A., Percy C., Jack A., Shanmugaratnam K., Sobin L, Parkin DM, Whelan S, World Health Organisation, Geneva.
  14. World Cancer Report (2008). Eds. Boyle P, Levin B. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
  15. Yeole B (1997). Cancer in India in the year 2001, Acta Universitatis Temperensis, Tampere. 552.
  16. Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin DM (2001). Globocan 2000: Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence worldwide. Lyon France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
  17. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al (2010). GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 10 [http://globocan.iarc.fr/]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed on 03/11/2012.
  18. Garcia M, Jemal A, Ward EM, et al (2007). Global Cancer Facts and Figures 2007. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.
  19. Hankey BF, Feuer EJ, Clegg LX (1999). Cancer surveillance series: interpreting trends in Prostate cancer part I: evidence of the effects of screening in recent Prostate cancer incidence, mortality and survival rates. J Natl Cancer Inst, 91, 1017-24. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/91.12.1017
  20. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al (2012). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations), National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2009_pops09/, accessed on 03/11/2012
  21. Hsing AW, Tsao L, Devesa SS (2000). International trends and patterns of Prostate cancer Incidence and mortality. Int J Cancer (Pred Oncol), 85, 60-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000101)85:1<60::AID-IJC11>3.0.CO;2-B
  22. Indian Cancer Society (2007). Cancer incidence and patterns in urban Maharashtra -2001. Report to the state of Maharashtra on status of cancer, Cancer Registry Division, Mumbai, India.
  23. International Agency for Research on Cancer and Cancer Research UK(2012). World Cancer Factsheet. Cancer Research UK, London.
  24. Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology(2004). Population based cancer registry, biennial report, 2000 and 2001. Department of Epidemiology and Bio-Statistics, Bangalore, India.
  25. Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology(2005). Population based cancer registry, Biennial report, 2002. Department of Epidemiology and Bio-Statistics, Bangalore, India.
  26. Muir CS, Waterhouse JAH, Mack T (1987). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. V, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, IARC Scientific Publication 88.
  27. Beaulieu N, Bloom D, Bloom R, Stein R (2009). Breakaway: The Global Burden of Cancer-Challenges and Opportunities. London, UK: The Economist Intelligence Unit.
  28. Curado MP, Edwards B, Sinha HR, et al (2007). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol IX. IARC Lyon Scientific Publication 160.
  29. Murthy NS, Chaudhry K, Rath GK (2008). Burden of cancer and projections for 2016, Indian Scenario: Gaps in the availability of radiotherapy treatment facilities. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 671-7.
  30. National Cancer Registry Programme (NCRP) (2009). Time trends in Cancer Incidence rates 1982-2005, Indian Council of Medical Research, Bangalore, India.
  31. National Cancer Registry Programme(2008). Two year report of population based Cancer Registries, 2004-2005, Incidence and distribution of cancer, Indian Council of Medical Research, Bangalore, India.

Cited by

  1. Utility of Digital Rectal Examination, Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, and Transrectal Ultrasound in the Detection of Prostate Cancer: A Developing Country Perspective vol.15, pp.7, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.7.3087
  2. A Study of Molecular Signals Deregulating Mismatch Repair Genes in Prostate Cancer Compared to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia vol.10, pp.5, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125560
  3. Prostate Cancer Screening in the Fit Chilean Elderly: a Head to Head Comparison of Total Serum PSA versus Age Adjusted PSA versus Primary Circulating Prostate Cells to Detect Prostate Cancer at Initial Biopsy vol.16, pp.2, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.2.601
  4. in Human Prostate Cancer Cells vol.69, pp.7, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2017.1359321
  5. Preoperative Predictors of Extraprostatic Extension of Prostate Cancer (pT3a) in a Contemporary Indian Cohort vol.8, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13193-017-0671-0
  6. Genetic Polymorphisms in miR-146a, miR-196a2 and miR-125a Genes and its Association in Prostate Cancer pp.1532-2807, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12253-018-0412-x