Impact of Yellow Dust Transport from Gobi Desert on Fractional Ratio and Correlations of Temporal PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Gangneung City in Fall

고비사막으로부터 황사수송이 가을에 강릉시의 시간별 PM10, PM2.5, PM1 간의 농도차비와 상관관계에 미치는 영향

  • Lee, Mi-Sook (Department of Health Environment, Graduate School of Venture, Hoseo University) ;
  • Chung, Jin-Do (Department of Health Environment, Graduate School of Venture, Hoseo University)
  • 이미숙 (호서대학교 벤처대학원 보건환경학과) ;
  • 정진도 (호서대학교 벤처대학원 보건환경학과)
  • Received : 2011.11.17
  • Accepted : 2012.02.05
  • Published : 2012.02.29


Hourly concentrations of $PM_1$, $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$, were investigated at Gangneung city in the Korean east coast on 0000LST October 26~1800LST October 29, 2003. Before the intrusion of Yellow dust from Gobi Desert, $PM_{10}$($PM_{2.5}$, $PM_1$) concentration was generally low, more or less than 20 (10, 5) ${\mu}g/m^3$, and higher PM concentration was found at 0900LST at the beginning time of office hour and their maximum ones at 1700LST around its ending time. As correlation coefficient of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$($PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_1$, and $PM_{10}$ and $PM_1$) was very high with 0.90(0.99, 0.84), and fractional ratios of $(PM_{10}-PM_{2.5})/PM_{2.5}((PM_{2.5}-PM_1)/PM_1)$ were 1.37~3.39(0.23~0.54), respectively. It implied that local $PM_{10}$ concentration could be greatly affected by particulate matters of sizes larger than $2.5{\mu}m$, and $PM_{2.5}$ concentration could be by particulate matters of sizes smaller than $2.5{\mu}m$. During the dust intrusion, maximum concentration of $PM_{10}$($PM_{2.5}$, $PM_1$) reached 154.57(93.19, 76.05) ${\mu}g/m^3$ with 3.8(3.4, 14.1) times higher concentration than before the dust intrusion. As correlation coefficient of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$(vice verse, $PM_{2.5}$, $PM_1$) was almost perfect high with 0.98(1.00, 0.97) and fractional ratios of $(PM_{10}-PM_{2.5})/PM_{2.5}((PM_{2.5}-PM_1)/PM_1)$ were 0.48~1.25(0.16~0.37), local $PM_{10}$ concentration could be major affected by particulates smaller than both $2.5{\mu}m$ and $1{\mu}m$ (fine particulate), opposite to ones before the dust intrusion. After the ending of dust intrusion, as its coefficient of 0.23(0.81, - 0.36) was very low, except the case of $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_1$ and $(PM_{10}-PM_{2.5})/PM_{2.5}((PM_{2.5}-PM_1)/PM_1)$ were 1.13~1.91(0.29~1.90), concentrations of coarse particulates larger than $2.5{\mu}m$ greatly contributed to $PM_{10}$ concentration, again. For a whole period, as the correlation coefficients of $PM_{10}$, $PM_{2.5}$, $PM_1$ were very high with 0.94, 1.00 and 0.92, reliable regression equations among PM concentrations were suggested.


Gobi Desert;$PM_{10}$;$PM_{2.5}$;$PM_1$;Yellow dust;Correlation coefficient;Fractional ratio;Regression equation


  1. 공주부, 한진석, 문광주, 안준영, 정다위, 이석조, 김정은, 김영준, 2002, 제주도 고산에서의 $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$성분 특성 분석, 한국대기환경학회 2002 추계학술대회 논문집, 147-148.
  2. 전병일, 2010, 부산지역 $PM_{10}$$PM_{2.5}$농도의 시간 및 공간적 변화 특성, 19(8), 1013-1023.
  3. 정진도, 황승민, 최희석, 2008, 아산지역의 황사/비황사 시 $PM_{2.5}, PM_{10}$ 농도 특성에 관한 연구, 대한환경공 학회지, 30(11), 1111-1115.
  4. 최 효, 2008, 봄철 황사 전 후 산악연안도시, 강릉시에서 $PM_{1}, PM_{2.5}, PM_{10}$의 농도 비교, 한국환경과학회지, 17(5), 84-95.
  5. 최 효, 2010, 가을 황사발생 시 고비사막에서 수송된 극 미세입자가 입자상물질농도 $(PM_{10}, PM_{2.5}, PM_{1})$에 미친 영향-2003년 10월 27일 사례, 기후연구, 5(3), 219-233.
  6. 최 효, 2011, 겨울 황사기간 중 한국, 강릉시의 시간별 가스상오염물질 농도의 변화특성-2005년 2월 14-16 일 사례, 기후연구, 6(1), 59-76.
  7. Choi, H., 2004a, Influence of large scale motion and atmospheric boundary layer upon dustorm generation and local particulate concentration, Ph.D. thesis, Peking University Press, 80.
  8. Choi, H., 2004b: Tropical night (nocturnal thermal high) in the mountainous coastal city. J. Environ. Sci., 13, 965-985.
  9. Choi, H., Choi, D. S., Choi, S. M., 2010, Meteorological condition and atmospheric boundary layer influenced upon temporal concentrations of $PM_{1}, PM_{2.5}$ at a coastal city, Korea for Yellow Sand Event from Gobi Desert, Disaster Adv., 3(4), 309-315.
  10. Choi, H., Choi, D. S., 2008, Concentration of $PM_{10}, PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{1}$ influenced by atmospheric circulation and atmospheric boundary layer in the Korean mountainous coast during duststorm period, Atmos. Res., 89, 330-337.
  11. Choi, H., Zhang, Y. H., 2008, Prediction of duststorm evolution by vorticity theory, Atmos. Res., 89, 338-350.
  12. Choi, H., Zhang, Y. H., Kim, K. H., 2008, Sudden high concentration of TSP affected by atmospheric boundary layer in Seoul metropolitan area during duststorm period, Environ. Inter., 34(5), 635-647.
  13. Chung, Y. S., Kim, H. S., Natsagdorj, L., Jugder, D., Chen, S. J., 2001, On yellow sand occurred during 1997-2000, J. Korean Meteor. Sci., 37, 305-316.
  14. Evagelopoulos, V., Zoras, S., Triantafyllou, A. G., Albanis, T. A., 2006, $PM_{10}-PM_{2.5}$ time series and fractal analysis, Global Nest J., 8(3), 234-240.
  15. Fei, J., Qing, Y., 1998, The numerical simulation on dust-storm over east Asia II: A case analysis, Acta Sci. & Nat., Univ. Pekinensis, 34(5), 639-645.
  16. Geller, M. D., Fine, P. M., Sioutas, C., 2004, The relationship between real time and time integrated coarse (2.5-10um), intermodal (1-2.5um), and fine (<2.5um) particulate matter in the Los Angeles basin, Air & Waste Manage. Assoi., 54, 1029-1039.
  17. Huang, M., Wang, Z., 1998, A model for long-range transport of yellow sand in East Asia, Atmos. Sinica, 22, 625-637.
  18. Kim, H. K., Kim, M. Y., 2003, The effects of Asian dust on particulate matter fractionation in Seoul, Korea during spring 2001, Chemosphere, 51, 707-721.
  19. Lin, T. H., 2001, Long-range transport of yellow sand to Taiwan in spring 2000: Observed evidence and simulation, Atmos. Environ., 35, 5873-5882.
  20. Middleton, N. J., 1986, A geography of dust storms in southwest Asia, J. Climate, 6, 183-196.
  21. Wang, Z., Ueda, H., Huang, M., 2000, A deflation module for use in modeling long-range transport of yellow sand over East Asia, J. Geophy. Res., 26, 947-956.
  22. Zhang, Y., Zhong, Y., 1985, The simulation and diagnosis for a strong wind associated with northeast low, Acta Meteor. Sinica, 43, 97-105.

Cited by

  1. Double Compressions of Atmospheric Depth by Geopotential Tendency, Vorticity, and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Affected Abrupt High Particulate Matter Concentrations at a Coastal City for a Yellow Dust Period in October vol.2014, pp.1687-9317, 2014,