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Characterization and Evaluation of Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) Gene Effect on Pork Quality Traits in Pigs

돼지 Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) 유전자의 육질연관성 분석

  • Roh, Jung-Gun (College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Sang-Wook (College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Choi, Jung-Suk (College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Choi, Yang-Il (College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Jong-Joo (School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University) ;
  • Choi, Bong-Hwan (Division of Animal Genomics and Bioinformatics, National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Kim, Tae-Hun (Division of Animal Genomics and Bioinformatics, National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Kim, Kwan-Suk (College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University)
  • 노정건 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 축산학과) ;
  • 김상욱 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 축산학과) ;
  • 최정석 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 축산학과) ;
  • 최양일 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 축산학과) ;
  • 김종주 (영남대학교 생명공학부) ;
  • 최봉환 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원) ;
  • 김태헌 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원) ;
  • 김관석 (충북대학교 농업생명환경대학 축산학과)
  • Received : 2011.02.09
  • Accepted : 2012.01.31
  • Published : 2012.02.29

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine MC4R gene and validate the effect of the MC4R genotype for marker assisted selection (MAS). Six amplicons were produced to analyze the entire base sequences of the porcine MC4R gene and six SNPs were detected (c.-780C>G, c.-135C>T, c.175C>T-Leu59Leu, c.707A>G-Arg236His, c.892A>G-Asp298Asn, and c.*430A>T). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the six SNPs was analyzed by performing haploid analysis. There was a perfect linkage disequilibrium in c.-780C>G, c.-135C>T, c.175C>T-Leu59Leu, c.707A>G-Arg236His, and c.*430A>T. Only the c.892A>G (Asp298Asn) SNP showed a very low LD with an $r^2$ value of 0.028 and the D' value of 0.348. As a result, the two SNPs-c.707A>G (Arg236His) and c.892A>G (Asp298Asn)-were selected to extract the genotype frequencies from the 5 pig breeds by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) genotype analysis method. The SNP frequency of c.707A>G (Arg236His) indicated the presence of the A (His) allele only in Yorkshire, while the G allele was fixed in the KNP, Landrace, Berkshire, and Duroc. Association analysis was carried out in 484 pigs with the c.707A>G (Arg236His) SNP and the meat quality traits of four different pig cross populations: a significant association was noted in crude fat, sirloin moisture, meat color, and the degree of red and yellow coloration. The frequency of the c.892A>G(Asp298Asn) SNP genotype varied among the breeds; while Duroc showed the highest frequency of the A (Asn) allele, KNP showed the highest frequency of the G (Asp) allele. Association analysis was carried out in 1126 pigs with the c.892A>G (Asp298Asn) SNP and the meat quality traits of four pig populations: a highly significant linkage was noted in the back-fat thickness (P<0.002). It was found that the back-fat thickness was higher in individuals with the AA genotype than in those with the AG or GG genotype. Thus, in this study, we verified that the c.892A>G (Asp298Asn) SNP in the pig MC4R gene has a sufficient effect as a gene marker for MAS in Korean pork industry.

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