Effects of Dietary Garlic Extract on Growth, Feed Utilization and Whole Body Composition of Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus)

  • Lee, Dong-Hoon (Gyenoggi Province Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute) ;
  • Ra, Chang-Six (Department of Animal Life System, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Song, Young-Han (Department of Animal Life System, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Sung, Kyung-Il (Department of Animal Life System, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Jeong-Dae (Department of Animal Life System, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University)
  • Received : 2012.01.05
  • Accepted : 2012.01.31
  • Published : 2012.04.01


This study was carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extract (GE) on growth performance of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). The first experiment was designed to determine the optimum levels of garlic extract as growth promoter during 10 weeks. Three groups (two replicates/group) of 240 fish with mean body weight of 85 g were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 0.5 and 1.0% of GE. The highest weight gain (%) and feed efficiency (%) were found in fish groups fed with diet containing 0.5% GE. Subsequently, the supplemental effects of dietary GE was studied on growth of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus) with an average body weight of 59.6 g. Fish cultured in freshwater were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with 0.5% GE or without GE (control), respectively, at the level of 2.0% of fish body weight per day for 5 weeks. Weight gain (51.1%), feed efficiency (79.1%), specific growth rate (1.18%) and protein efficiency ratio (1.50) of fish fed 0.5% GE were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fish fed the control diet. Significantly higher protein (PRE 20.4%) and lipid retention efficiencies (LRE, 74.5%) were also found in 0.5% GE group (p<0.05). The present results suggested that dietary GE could improve growth and feed utilization of juvenile sterlet sturgeons.


Acipenser ruthenus;Feed Utilization;Garlic Extract;Growth


  1. Abou-Zeid, S. M. 2002. The effect of some medical plant on reproductive and productive performance of Nile tilapia fish. Cairo: Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture, p. 212. (Ph. D. Thesis)
  2. AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  3. Bampidis, V. A., V. Christodoulou, E. Christaki, P. Florou-Paneri and A. B. Spais. 2005. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and garlic husk supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 121:273-283.
  4. Chi, M. S., E. T. Koh and T. J. Steward. 1982. Effects of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard. J. Nutr. 112:241-248.
  5. Citarasu, T., M. M. Babu, S. M. J. Punitha, K. Venket Ramalingam and M. P. Marian. 2001. Control of pathogenic bacteria using herbal biomedicinal products in the larviculture system of Penaeus monodon. International Conference on Advanced Technologies in Fisheries and Marine Sciences, MS University, India.
  6. Citarasu, T., R. R. Sekar, M. M. Babu and M. P. Marian. 2002. Developing Artemia enriched herbal diet for producing quality larvae in Penaeus monodon. Asian. Fish. Sci. 15:21-32.
  7. Citarasu, T. 2010. Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquac. Int. 18:403-414.
  8. Cohen, D., Z. Ra'anan and T. Brody. 1981. Population profile development and morphotypic differentiation in giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. J. World Maricult. Soc. 12:231-243.
  9. Decker, E. A., A. D. Crum, S. D. Mims and J. H. Tidwell. 1991. Processing yield and composition of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), a potential aquaculture species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39:686-688.
  10. Dhall, W. and D. J. W. Moriaty. 1984. Functional aspects of nutrition and digestion: the midgut. In: The Biology of Crustacea (Ed. D. E. Bliss and L. H. Mantel), Vol. 5, Internal Anatomy and Physiological Regulation. Academic Press, Orlando, FL, pp. 215-251.
  11. Diab, A. S., G. O. El-Nagar and Y. M. Abd-El-Hady. 2002. Evaluation of Nigella sativa L (black seeds; baraka), Allium sativum (garlic) and BIOGEN as feed additives on growth performance and immunostimulants of O. niloticus fingerlings. Suez Canal Vet. Med. J. 745-775.
  12. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple 'F'tests. Biometrics 11:1-42.
  13. El-Dakar, A. Y., G. D. I. Hassanien, S. S. Gad and S. E. Sakr. 2004a. Use of medical and aromatic plants in fish diets: I. Effect of dried marjoram leaves on performance of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus${\times}$Oreochromis auraus, fingerlings. J. Egypt. Acad. Soc. Environ. Dev. (B. Aquacult.) 5:67-83.
  14. El-Dakar, A. Y., G. D. I. Hassanien, S. S. Gad and S. E. Sakr. 2004b. Use of medical and aromatic plants in fish diets: 2. Effect of dried basil leaves on performance of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus${\times}$Oreochromis auraus, fingerlings. 3rd Inter. Conf. on Animal Production and Health in Semi-Arid Areas, Suez Canal University, pp. 265-277.
  15. Freitas, R., J. B. Fonseca, R. T. Soares, H. S. Rostagn and P. R. Soares. 2001. Utilization of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as growth promoter of broilers. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 30:761-765.
  16. Hochleithner, M. and J. Gessner. 1999. The sturgeon and paddlefish (Acipenseriformes) of the world. Biology and Aquaculture. AquaTech publications. p. 165.
  17. Horton, G. M. J., D. B. Blethen and B. M. Prasad. 1991. The effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on feed palatability of horses and feed consumption, selected performance, and blood parameters in sheep and swine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 71:607-610.
  18. Hung, S. S. O., F. S. Conte and F. Frost. 1998. Growth of white sturgeon fed seven commercial feeds. Aquaculture 161:89.
  19. Jayaprakas, V. and J. Eupharsia. 1996. Growth performance of Labeo rohita (Ham.) Livol (IHF-1000), an herbal product. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. 63:1-10.
  20. Jayaprakas, V. and C. Sambhu. 1996. Growth response of white prawn, Penaeus indicus to dietary L-carnitine. Asian. Fish. Sci. 9:209-219.
  21. Kamruzzaman, M., A. Torita, Y. Sako, M. Al-Mamun and H. Sano. 2011. Effects of feeding garlic stem and leaf silage on rates of plasma leucine turnover, whole body protein synthesis and degradation in sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 99:37-43.
  22. Kim, J. D. and S. H. Shin. 2006. Growth, feed utilization and nutrient retention of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fed moist, semi-moist and extruded diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:720-726.
  23. Krayushkina, L. S. 2006. Considerations on evolutionary mechanisms of osmotic and ionic regulation in Acipenseridae: an overview. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22:70-76.
  24. Krzynowek, J. and J. Murphy. 1987. Prozimate composition, energy, fatty acid, sodium and cholesterol content finfish, shellfish, and their product. National Oceanic Atmosphere Administration Technical Report 55:1-48.
  25. Khattab, Y. A., A. M. S. Shalaby, S. M. Sharaf, H. I. EL-Marakby and E. H. Rizhalla. 2004. The physiological changes and growth performance of the Nile tilapia Oerochromis niloticus after feeding with $Biogen^{\circledR}$ as growth promoter. Egypt J. Aquatic Biol. Fish 8:145-158.
  26. Masahiro Sakai. 1999. Current research status of fish immunostimulants. Aquaculture 172:63-92.
  27. Metwally, M. A. A. 2009. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on some antioxidant activities in Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus). World J. Fish Mar. Sci. 1:56-64.
  28. Nya, E. J. and B. Austin. 2009. Use of garlic, Allium sativum, to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J. Fish Dis. 32:963-970.
  29. Oi, Y., M. Imafuku, C. Shishido, Y. Kominato, S. Nishimura and K. Iwai. 2001. Garlic supplementation increases testicular testosterone and decreases plasma corticosterone in rats fed a high protein diet. J. Nutr. 131:2150-2156.
  30. Sagi, A. and Z. Ra'anan. 1988. Morphotypic differentiation of male of the fresh-water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: changes in the midgut glands and the reproductive system. J. Crustacean Biol. 8:43-47.
  31. Sahu, S., B. K. Das, B. K. Mishra, J. Pradhan and N. Sarangi. 2007. Effect of Allium sativum on the immunity and survival of Labeo rohita infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 23:80-86.
  32. Shalaby, A. M., Y. M. Khattab and A. M. Abdel rahman. 2006. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). J. Venom. Anim. Toxins Incl. Trop. Dis. 12:172-201.
  33. Shalaby, S. M. M., A. I. Abd Elmonem and A. Y. El-Dakar. 2003. Enhancement of growth performance, feed and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), using of licorice roots (Erksous) as a feed attractive. J. Egypt. Acad. Soc. Environ. Develop. (B-Aquaculture), 4:119-142.
  34. Shalaby, S. M. M. 2004. Response of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings to diets supplemented with different levels of fenugreek seeds (Hulba). J. Agric. Mansoura Univ., 29:2231-2242.
  35. Shin, S. H. and M. K. Kim. 2004. Effect of dired powders or ethanol extracts of garlic flesh and peel on lipid metabolism and antithrombogenic capacity in 16-month-old rats. Hanguk Yongyang Hakhoechi. 37:515-524.
  36. Sivaram, V., M. M. Babu, T. Citarasu, G. Immanuel, S. Murugadass and M. P. Marian. 2004. Growth and immune response of juvenile greasy groupers (Epinephelus tauvina) fed with herbal antibacterial active principle supplemented diets against Vibrio harveyi infections. Aquaculture 237:9-20.
  37. SPSS. Inc. 1999. SPSS Base 10.0 for Windows User's Guide. SPSS Inc., Chicago IL.
  38. Tatara, M. R., E. Sliwa, K. Dudek, A. Gawron and T. Piersiak. 2008. Aged garlic extract and allicin improve performance and gastrointestinal tract development of piglets reared in artificial sow. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 15:63-69.
  39. Wanapat, M., P. Khejornsart, P. Pakdee and S. Wanapat. 2008. Effect of supplementation of garlic powder on rumen ecology and digestibility of nutrients in ruminants. J. Sci. Food Agric. 88:2231-2237.
  40. Zimmerman, D. W. and B. D. Zumbo. 1993. Relative power of the Wilcoxon test, the friedman test, and repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks. J. Exp. Educ. 62:75-86.

Cited by

  1. Effects of Dietary Garlic Powder on Growth, Feed Utilization and Whole Body Composition Changes in Fingerling Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus vol.27, pp.9, 2014,
  2. Survival Rate and Biochemical Parameters in Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) Larvae Fed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extract vol.05, pp.01, 2015,
  3. vol.22, pp.2, 2015,
  4. ) fry vol.47, pp.9, 2015,
  5. ) green hull extract as a source of natural phenol vol.32, pp.5, 2016,
  6. Dietary effects of garlic powder (Allium sativum) on growth, blood indices, carcass composition, and lysozyme activity in brown trout (Salmo caspius) and resistance against Yersinia ruckeri infection vol.25, pp.6, 2017,
  7. Effects of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on growth performance, hematological and organosomatic indices of hybrid catfish, Clarias macrocephalus × C. gariepinus vol.84, pp.6, 2018,
  8. pp.13535773, 2019,