- Volume 25 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Effects of Dietary Additives and Early Feeding on Performance, Gut Development and Immune Status of Broiler Chickens Challenged with Clostridium perfringens
- Ao, Z. ;
- Kocher, A. ;
- Choct, M.
- Received : 2011.10.20
- Accepted : 2011.12.15
- Published : 2012.04.01
The effects of dietary additives and holding time on resistance and resilience of broiler chickens to Clostridium perfringens challenge were investigated by offering four dietary treatments. These were a negative control (basal), a positive control (Zn-bacitracin) and two dietary additives, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and acidifier. Two holding times included (a) immediate access to feed and water post hatch (FED) and (b) access to both feed and water 48 h post hatch (HELD). Chicks fed Zn-bacitracin had no intestinal lesions attributed to necrotic enteritis (NE), whereas chicks fed both MOS or acidifier showed signs of NE related lesions. All dietary treatments were effective in reducing the numbers of C. perfringens in the ileum post challenge. The FED chicks had heavier body weight and numerically lower mortality. The FED chicks also showed stronger immune responses to NE challenge, showing enhanced (p<0.05) proliferation of T-cells. Early feeding of the MOS supplemented diet increased (p<0.05) IL-6 production. The relative bursa weight of the FED chicks was heavier at d 21 (p<0.05). All the additives increased the relative spleen weight of the HELD chicks at d 14 (p<0.05). The FED chicks had increased villus height and reduced crypt depth, and hence an increased villus/crypt ratio, especially in the jejunum at d 14 (p<0.05). The same was true for the HELD chicks given dietary additives (p<0.05). It may be concluded that the chicks with early access to dietary additives showed enhanced immune response and gut development, under C. perfringens challenge. The findings of this study shed light on managerial and nutritional strategies that could be used to prevent NE in the broiler industry without the use of in-feed antibiotics.
Necrotic Enteritis;Early Feeding;Gut Morphology;Alternative to Antibiotics;Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS)
- Al-Sheikhly, F. and R. B. Truscott. 1977. The interaction of Clostridium perfringens and its toxins in the production of necrotic enteritis of chickens. Avian Dis. 21:256-263. https://doi.org/10.2307/1589345
- Ao, Z. and M. Choct. 2003. Early nutrition for broilers-A two edged sword? Aust. Poult. Sci. Symp. 15:149-153.
- Bird, A. R., W. J. Croom, Jr., Y. K. Fan, L. R. Daniel, B. L. Black, B. W. McBride, E. J. Eisen, L. S. Bull and L. L. Taylor. 1994. Jejunal glucose absorption is enhanced by epidermal growth factor in mice. J. Nutr. 124:231-240.
- Branton, S. L., F. N. Reece and W. M. Hagler, Jr. 1987. Influence of a wheat diet on mortality of broiler chickens associated with necrotic enteritis. Poult. Sci. 66:1326-1330. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0661326
- Caspary, W. F. 1992. Physiology and pathophysiology of intestinal absorption. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55:299-308.
- Casteel, E. T., J. L.Wilson, R. J. Buhr and J. E. Sander. 1994. The influence of extended posthatch holding time and placement density on broiler performance. Poult. Sci. 73:1679-1684. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0731679
- Cook, R. H. and F. H. Bird. 1973. Duodenal villus area and epithelial cellular migration in conventional and germ-free chicks. Poult. Sci. 52:2276-2280. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0522276
- Corrier, D. E., D. J. Nisbet, C. M.canlan, A. G. Hollister, D. J. Caldwell, L. A. Thomas, B. M. Hargis, T. Tomkins and J. R. Deloach. 1995. Treatment of commercial broiler chickens with a characterized culture of cecal bacteria to reduce Salmonella colonisation. Poult. Sci. 74:1093-1101. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0741093
- De Beer, M., D. Elfick and D. A. Emmerson. 2011. Is a feed conversion ratio of 1:1 a realistic and appropriate goal for broiler chickens in the next 10 years? In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition-Australia (Ed. P. Cronje). pp. 9-14. University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
- Dibner, J. J., C. D. Knight, M. L. Kitchell, C. A. Atwell, A. C. Downs and F. J. Ivey. 1998. Early feeding and development of the immune system in neonatal poultry. J. App. Poult. Res. 7: 425-436. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/7.4.425
- Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range test and multiple F-tests. Biometrics 11:1-42. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478
- Ficken, M. D. and D. P. Wages. 1997. Necrotic enteritis. In: Diseases of Poultry (Ed. B. W. Calnek). pp. 261-264(Iowa State University Press).
- Finucane, M., P. Spring and K. E. Newman. 1999. Incidence of mannose sensitive adhesins in enteric bacteria. Poult. Sci. 78: 139. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/78.1.139
- Gauldie, J., C. Richards, D. Harnish, P. Lansdorp and H. Baumann. 1987. Interferon beta 2/B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute phase protein response in liver cells. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 84:7251-7255. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.84.20.7251
- Glick, B. 1967. Antibody and gland studies in cortisone and ACTH-injected birds. J. Immunol. 98:1076-1084.
- Gordon, H. A. and E. Bruckner-Kardoss. 1961. Effect of normal microbial flora on intestinal surface area. Am. J. Physiol. 201: 175-178.
- Helmboldt, C. F. and E. S. Bryant. 1971. The pathology of necrotic enteritis in domestic fowl. Avian Dis. 15:775-780. https://doi.org/10.2307/1588866
- Heneghan, J. B. 1965. Imbalance of the normal microbial flora: The germfree alimentary tract. Am. J. Digest. Dis. 10:864-869. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02236095
- Hirano, T., K. Yasukawa, H. Harada, T. Taga, Y. Watanabe, T. Matsuda, S. Kashiwamura, K. Nakajima, K. Koyama, A. Iwamatsu, S. Tsunasawa, F. Sakiyama, H. Matsui, Y. Takahara, T. Taniguchi and T. Kishimoto. 1986. Complementary DNA for novel human interleukin (BSF-2) that induces lymphocytes-B to produce immunoglobulin. Nature 324:73-76. https://doi.org/10.1038/324073a0
- Hofacre, C. L. 2001. Necrotic enteritis, currently a billion dollar disease: is there anything new on the horizon? In: Science and Technology in the Feed Industry: Proceedings of Alltech's 17th Annual Symposium (Ed. T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques). pp. 79-86. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.
- Kornasio, R., O. Halevy, O. Kedar and Z. Uni. 2011. Effect of in ovo feeding and its interaction with timing of first feed on glycogen reserves, muscle growth, and body weight. Poult. Sci. 90:1467-1477. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2010-01080
- Ikebuchi, K., G. G. Wong, S. C. Clark, J. N. Ihle, Y. Hirai and M. Ogawa. 1987. Interleukin 6 enhancement of interleukin 3-dependent proliferation of multipotential hemopoietic progenitors. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 84:791-798.
- Kaldhusdal, M. I. 2000. Necrotic enteritis as affected by dietary ingredients. World Poult. 16:42-43.
- Kaldhusdal, M. and M. Hofshagen. 1992. Barley inclusion and avoparcin supplementation in broiler diets. 2. Clinical, pathological, and bacteriological findings in a mild form of necrotic enteritis. Poult. Sci. 71:1145-1153. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0711145
- Kaldhusdal, M. and E. Skjerve. 1996. Association between cereal contents in the diet and the incidence of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Norway. Prev. Vet. Med. 28:1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5877(96)01021-5
- Katanbaf, M. N., E. A. Dunnington and P. B. Siegel. 1988. Allomorphic relationships from hatching to 56 days in parental lines and F1 crosses of chickens selected over 27 generations for high or low BW. Growth Dev. Aging 52:11-22.
- Kelso, A. and D. Metcalf. 1990. T lymphocyte-derived colony-stimulating factors. Adv. Immunol. 48:69-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60752-X
- Keyburn, A. L., S. A. Sheedy, M. E. Ford, M. M. Williamson, M. M. Awad, J. I. Rood and R. J. Moore. 2006. Alpha-toxin of Clostridium perfringens is not an essential virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in chickens. Infect. Immun. 74:6496-6500. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00806-06
- Klasing, K. C. 1998. Nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious diseases. Poult. Sci. 77:1119-1125. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/77.8.1119
- Lilja, C. 1983. A comparative study of postnatal growth and organ development in some species of birds. Growth 47:317-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0248(79)90259-8
- Lowenthal, J. W., T. E. Connick, P. G. McWaters and J. J. York. 1994. Development of T-cell immune responsiveness in the chicken. Immunol. Cell Biol. 72:115-122. https://doi.org/10.1038/icb.1994.18
- Manugistics, Inc. 2000. Statgraphics Plus for Windows. Rockville, MD, USA.
- McDevitt, R. M., J. D. Brooker, T. Acamovic and N. H. C. Sparks. 2006. Necrotic enteritis: a continuing challenge for the poultry industry. World's Poult. Sci. J. 62:221-247. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS200593
- Moran, E. T. Jr. 1990. Effects of egg weight, glucose administration at hatch, and delayed access to feed and water on the poult at 2 weeks of age. Poult. Sci. 69:1718-1723. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0691718
- National Health and Medical Research Council. 2004. Australia code of practice for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes. National Health and Medical Research Council, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia Agricultural Council, Australian Government Publication Service, Canberra, Australia.
- Noy, Y. and D. Sklan. 1999. Different types of early feeding and performance in chicks and poults. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 8:16-24. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/8.1.16
- Parish, W. E. 1961. Necrotic enteritis in the fowl. I. Histopathology of the disease and isolation of a strain of Clostridium welchii. J. Comp. Pathol. 71:377-393. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0368-1742(61)80043-X
- Perdigon, G., S. Alvarez and A. Pesce De Ruiz Holgado. 1991. Immunoadjuvant activity of oral Lactobacillus casei: influence of dose on the secretory immune response and protective capacity in intestinal infections. J. Dairy Res. 58:485-496. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900030090
- Ritz, C. W., R. M. Hulet, B. B. Self and D. M. Denbow. 1995. Growth and intestinal morphology of male turkeys as influenced by dietary supplementation of amylase and xylanase. Poult. Sci. 74:1329-1334. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0741329
- Schneeman, B. D. 1982. Pancreatic and digestive function. In: Dietary Fibre in Health and Disease (Ed. G. V. Vahoung and D. Kritchevsky). pp. 73-83. Plenum Press, New York.
- Sklan, D. and Y. Noy. 2000. Hydrolysis and absorption in the small intestines of posthatch chicks. Poult. Sci. 79:1306-1310. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.9.1306
- Sklan, D., Y. Noy, A. Hoyzman and I. Rozenboim. 2000. Decreasing weight loss in the hatchery by feeding chicks and poults in hatching trays. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 9:142-148. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/9.2.142
- Thompson, J. L. and M. Hinton. 1997. Antibacterial activity of formic and propionic acids in the diet of hens on Salmonellas in the crop. Br. Poult. Sci. 38:59-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669708417941
- Truscott, R. B. and F. Al-Sheikhly. 1977. Reproduction and treatment of necrotic enteritis in broilers. Am. J. Vet. Res. 38: 857-861.
- Uni, Z. 1998. Impact of early nutrition on poultry: Review of presentations. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 7:452-455. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/7.4.452
- Uni, Z., S. Ganot and D. Sklan. 1998. Posthatch development of mucosal function in the broiler small intestine. Poult. Sci. 77: 75-82. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/77.1.75
- Uni, Z., Y. Noy and D. Sklan. 1999. Posthatch development of small intestinal function in the poult. Poult. Sci. 78:215-222. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/78.2.215
- Williams, R. B. 2005. Intercurrent coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis of chickens:rational, integrated disease management by maintenance of gut integrity. Avian Pathol. 34:159-180. https://doi.org/10.1080/03079450500112195
van Snick, J., S. Cayphas, A. Vink, C. Uyttenhove, P. G. Coulie, M. R. Rubira and R. J. Simpson. 1986. Purification and
$NH_2$-terminal amino acid sequence of a T-cell-derived lymphokine with growth factor activity for B-cell hybridomas. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 83:9679-9683. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.83.24.9679
- Wilson, H. R. 1991. Interrelationships of egg size, chick size, posthatching growth, and hatchability. World's Poult. Sci. J. 47:5-16. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19910002
- Wu, S. B., N. Rodgers and M. Choct. 2010. Optimized necrotic enteritis model producing clinical and subclinical infection of Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens. Avian Dis. 54:1058-1065. https://doi.org/10.1637/9338-032910-Reg.1
- Wyatt, C. L., W. D. Weaver, Jr., W. L. Beane, D. M. Denbow and W. B. Gross. 1986. Influence of hatcher holding times on several physiological parameters associated with the immune system of chickens. Poult. Sci. 65:2156-2164. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0652156
- vol.45, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2016.1155693
- Managing gut health without reliance on antimicrobials in poultry vol.57, pp.11, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN17288
- Dietary inclusion of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides in response to broilers challenged with subclinical necrotic enteritis vol.58, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2017.1327705
- vol.58, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2017.1370697
- Strains Isolated from Healthy and Necrotic Enteritis-Afflicted Broiler Chickens vol.61, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1637/11507-093016-Reg.1
- challenge vol.46, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2017.1383258
- Effect of high dietary levels of α-tocopherol acetate on immune response of light and heavy weight male broiler breeders vol.27, pp.5, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2736-z