- Volume 25 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Effect of Xylanase on Performance and Apparent Metabolisable Energy in Starter Broilers Fed Diets Containing One Maize Variety Harvested in Different Regions of China
- O'Neill, H.V. Masey (AB Vista Feed Ingredients) ;
- Liu, N. (School of Animal Science, Henan University of Science and Technology) ;
- Wang, J.P. (School of Animal Science, Henan University of Science and Technology) ;
- Diallo, A. (Department of Food Science, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham) ;
- Hill, S. (Department of Food Science, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham)
- Received : 2011.09.02
- Accepted : 2011.11.17
- Published : 2012.04.01
The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in broiler performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and ileal digestible energy (IDE) between five different maize samples fed with and without xylanase at 16,000 U/kg. Various in vitro characterisations were conducted to determine if any could predict performance or AME. Samples of the maize were harvested in five diverse regions and fed individually in a mash diet as follows (g/kg): test maize 608.3; soya bean meal (SBM) 324.1; poultry fat 25.2; salt 4.6; met 2.6; lys 1.6; thr 0.5; limestone 9.7, dical 18.4; vit/min 5.0; CP 210 and ME (kcal/kg) 3,085. The diets were fed to 720 broilers with 6 replicates, each containing 12 birds per treatment, from 0 to 18 d of age. Maize samples were analysed for starch, protein, crude fibre, fat, protein solubility index (PSI) and vitreousness using near infra red reflectance spectroscopy (NIR). They were also assayed using an in vitro starch digestibility method. The results showed that there was no effect of harvest region on the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the broilers over the 18 d period (p = 0.959, 0.926, 0.819 respectively). There was an improvement in all parameters with the addition of xylanase (FI p = 0.011; BWG and FCR p<0.001). There was a significant positive effect of xylanase on IDE, AME, IDE Intake (IDEI) and AME intake (AMEI) (p<0.0001 in all cases). Although there was no significant effect of maize source, there was a strong trend towards variability in IDE (p = 0.066) and AME (p = 0.058). There were no significant correlations (p<0.05) between any proximate or physiochemical values and any performance or AME values. This may suggest that none of those selected were suitable predictors for performance or AME. The broilers performed well according to the breed guidelines, with slightly increased FI, increased BWG and similar FCR prior to the addition of xylanase. When FCR and BWG were analysed with FI as a covariate, xylanase addition remained significant suggesting that the improvement in BWG and FCR was driven by an increase in digestibility and nutrient availability.
- Brake, J., M. A. Faust and J. Stein. 2003. Evaluation of transgenic event Bt11 hybrid corn in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 82:551-559. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.4.551
- Carre, B., A. Idi, S. Maisonnier, J. P. Melcion, F. X. Oury, J. Gomez and P. Pluchard. 2002. Relationships between digestibilities of food components and characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) introduced as the only cereal source in a broiler chicken diet. Br. Poult. Sci. 43:404-415. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660120103684
- Collins, N. E., E. T. Moran and H. R. Stilborn. 2001. Influence of yellow dent corn hybrids having different kernel characteristics yet similar nutrient composition on broiler production. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 10:228-235.
- Collins, N. E., E. T. Moran and H. R. Stilborn. 2003. Performance of broilers fed normal and waxy corn diets formulated with chick and rooster derived apparent metabolizable energy values for the grains. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 12:196-206.
- Cowieson, A. J. 2010. Corn nutritional value, composition analyzed. Feedstuffs. 82:1-3.
- Cowieson, A. J. and V. Ravindran. 2008. Effect of exogenous enzymes in maize-based diets varying in nutrient density for young broilers: growth performance and digestibility of energy, minerals and amino acids. Br. Poult. Sci. 49:37-44. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660701812989
- Cowieson, A. J., M. R. Bedford and V. Ravindran. 2010. Interactions between xylanase and glucanase in maize-soy-based diets for broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 51:246-257. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071661003789347
- Cromwell, G. L., C. C. Calvert, T. R. Cline, J. D. Crenshaw, R. A. Easter, R. C. Ewan, C. R. Hamilton, G. M. Hill, A. J. Lewis, D. C. Mahan, E. R. Miller, J. L. Nelsson, J. E. Pettigrew, L. F. Tribble, T. L. Veum and J. T. Yen. 1999. Variability among sources and laboratories in nutrient analyses of corn and soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3262-3273.
- D'Alphonso, T. 2002. Global corn quality variability. Proceedings of the Multi-state Poultry Meeting May 14-16, 2002.
- Hsu, L-W. and J. L. Sell. 1995. Nutritional value for growing turkeys of corn of light test weight. Poult. Sci. 74:1703-1707. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0741703
- Iji, P. A., K. Kwazi, S. Slippers and R. M. Gous. 2003. Intestinal function and body growth of broiler chickens on diets based on maize dried at different temperatures and supplemented with microbial enzyme. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 43:77-90. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2003007
- Jacobs, C. M., P. L. Utterback, C. M. Parsons, D. Rice, B. Smith, M. Hinds, M. Liebergesell and T. Sauber. 2008. Performance of laying hens fed diets containing DAS-59122-7 maize grain compared with diets containing non-transgenic maize grain. Poult. Sci. 87:475-479. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00217
- Janas, S., P. Boutry, P. Malumba., L. V. Elst and F. Bera. 2010. Modelling dehydration and quality degradation of maize during fluidized-bed drying. J. Food Eng. 100:527-534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.05.001
- Kaczmarek, S. A. J. Cowieson, D. Jozefiak, M. Bochenek and A. Rutkowski. 2007. The effect of drying temperature and exogenous enzyme supplementation on the nutritional value of maize for broiler chickens. Proc. 16th Europ. Symp. Poult. Nutr. 555 (Abstr.)
- Kasim, A. B. and H. M. Edwards. 2000. Effect of sources of maize and maize particle sizes on the utilization of phytate phosphorus in broiler chicks. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 86:15-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00157-7
- Knudsen, K. E. B. 1997. Carbohydrate and lignin contents of plant materials used in animal feeding. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 67:319-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00009-6
- Lui, N., G. H. Liu, F. D. Li, J. S. Sands, S. Zhang, A. J. Zheng and Y. J. Ru. 2007. Efficacy of phytases on egg production and nutrient digestibility in layers fed reduced phosphorus diets. Poult. Sci. 86:2337-2342. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00079
Mathlouthi, N., M. A. Mohamed and M. Larbier. 2003. Effect of enzyme preparation containing xylanase and
$\beta$-glucanase on performance of laying hens fed wheat/barley-or maize/ soybean meal-based diets. Br. Poult. Sci. 44:60-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/0007166031000085374
- Moore, S. M., K. J. Stalder, D. C. Beitz, C. H. Stahl, W. A. Fithian and K. Bregendahl. 2008. The correlation of chemical and physical corn kernel traits with production performance in broiler chickens and laying hens. Poult. Sci. 87:665-676. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00184
- Perez-Carillo, E. and S. O. Serna-Saldivar. 2006. Cell wall degrading enzymes and proteases improve starch yields of sorghum and maize. Starch-Starke. 58:338-344. https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200500483
- Peron, A., J. Gomez. S. Mignon-Grasteau, N. Sellier, J. Besnard, M. Derouet, H. Juin and B. Carre. 2006. Effects of wheat quality on digestion differ between the D+ and D-chicken lines selected for divergent digestion capacity. Poult. Sci. 85:462-469. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/85.3.462
- Piotrowski, C. R. Garcia, S. Flanagan, T. dos Santos, P. Philips, R. Ten Doeschate and P. Cambet. 2011. Development of near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy calibration for the prediction of nutrients to assess the quality of the maize. In: proceedings of 9ieme Journees de la Recerche Avicole 2011, Tours, France. p. 114.
- Rogel, A. M., E. F. Annison, W. L. Bryden and D. Balnave. 1987. The digestion of wheat-starch in broiler-chickens. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 38:639-649. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9870639
- Rose, S. P., M. S. Uddin and M. R. Bedford. 1996. Growth of broiler chickens fed different wheat varieties. Proceedings of the WPSA World Congress 1996, New Delhi India.
- Scott, T. A., F. G. Silversides, H. L. Classen, M. L. Swift and M. R. Bedford. 1999. Prediction of the performance of broiler chicks from apparent metabolizable energy and protein digestibility values obtained using a broiler chick bioassay. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 79:159-164.
- Shakouri, M. D., P. A. Iji, L. L. Mikkelsen and A. J. Cowieson. 2008. Intestinal function and gut microflora of broiler chickens as influenced by cereal grains and microbial enzyme supplementation. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 93:647-658. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2008.00852.x
- Short, F. J., P. Gorton, J. Wiseman and K. N. Boorman. 1996. Determination of titanium dioxide added as an inert marker in chicken digestibility studies. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59:215-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00916-7
- Uribelarrea, M., F. E. Below and S. P. Moose. 2004. Grain composition and productivity of maize hybrids derived from the illinois protein strains in response to variable nitrogen supply. Crop. Sci. 44:1593-1600. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2004.1593
- World Meteorological Organisation. 2011. http://www.wmo.int/ pages/index_en.html. Accessed June 2011.
- Wyatt, C. L., E. Moran and M. R. Bedford. 1997. Utilising feed enzymes to enhance the nutritional value of corn-based broiler diets. Poult. Sci. 76(Suppl. 1):39 (Abstr.).
- Wyatt, C. L., M. R. Bedford and L. A. Waldron. 1999. Role of enzymes in reducing variability in nutritive value of maize using the ileal digestibility method. Proc. Aust. Poult. Sci. Symp. 11:108-111.
- Zanella, I., N. K. Sakomura, F. G. Silversides, A. Fiqueirdo and M. Pack. 1999. Effect of enzyme supplementation of broiler diets based on corn and soybeans. Poult. Sci. 78:561-568. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/78.4.561
- Zhao, F., H. F. Zhang, S. S. Hou and Z. Y. Zhang. 2008. Predicting metabolizable energy of normal corn from its chemical composition in adult pekin ducks. Poult. Sci. 87:1603-1608. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00494
- Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and digesta characteristics in broiler chickens fed corn or wheat diets without or with supplemental xylanase1 vol.93, pp.5, 2014, https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03715
- Direct-fed microbial and its combination with xylanase, amylase, and protease enzymes in comparison with AGPs on broiler growth performance and foot-pad lesion development vol.25, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfw016
- Evaluation of a thermotolerant xylanase on broiler growth performance and dietary ileal digestible energy value pp.1537-0437, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfw046
- Effect of cereal type and Xylanase supplementation on nutrient retention and growth performance of broilers vol.26, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfx026
- Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet vol.88, pp.9, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12771