Redescription of Two Urostylid Ciliates (Ciliophora: Urostylida), Anteholosticha pulchra and Metaurostylopsis struederkypkeae from Korea

  • Park, Kyung-Min (Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University) ;
  • Jung, Jae-Ho (Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University) ;
  • Min, Gi-Sik (Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University)
  • Received : 2011.09.22
  • Accepted : 2011.12.30
  • Published : 2012.01.31


Two urostylid ciliates, Anteholosticha pulchra (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2003 and Metaurostylopsis struederkypkeae Shao et al., 2008, new to Korea, were collected from the Yellow Sea and the East Sea, Korea, respectively. They were identified based on live observation and protargol impregnation. Taxonomical characters of A. pulchra are as follows: $190-300{\times}30-55\;{\mu}m$ size in vivo; contractile vacuole located on the left side of the posterior 1/4 of the cell; spherical-reddish granules at cirral bases and around dorsal bristles, somewhat sparsely distributed throughout the cell surface; four frontal and two frontoterminal cirri; four dorsal kineties; caudal cirri absent. Metaurostylopsis struederkypkeae is characterized as follows: $80-110{\times}40-50\;{\mu}m$ size in vivo; caudal cirri absent; two types of cortical granules: type 1, yellow-green arranged along the ventral cirral rows and dorsal kineties; type 2, small and reddish, with an irregular arrangement; four frontal, four to eight frontoterminal, and two to six transverse cirri; five to seven left and three to five right marginal rows. Sequences of small subunit ribosomal DNA were determined from both species, and pairwise distances with their relatives were analyzed.


  1. Berger H, 2001. Catalogue of ciliate names 1. Hypotrichs. Verlag Helmut Berger, Salzburg, pp. 1-206.
  2. Berger H, 2003. Redefinition of Holosticha Wrzesniowski, 1877 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). European Journal of Protistology, 39:373-379.
  3. Berger H, 2006. Monograph of the Urostyloidea (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 1-1304.
  4. Blatterer H, Foissner W, 1988. Beitrag zur terricolen Ciliatenfauna (Protozoa: Ciliophora) Australiens. Stapfia, 17:1-84.
  5. Borror AC, 1979. Redefinition of the Urostylidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) on the basis of morphogenetic characters. The Journal of Eurkaryotic Microbiology, 26:544-550.
  6. Borror AC, Wicklow BJ, 1983. The suborder Urostylina Jankowski (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida): morphology, systematics and identification of species. Acta Protozoologica, 22:97- 126.
  7. Chen X, Huang J, Song W, 2011. Ontogeny and phylogeny of Metaurostylopsis cheni sp. n. (Protozoa, Ciliophora), with estimating the systematic position of Metaurostylopsis. Zoologica Scripta, 40:99-111.
  8. Foissner W, 1982. Ecology and taxonomy of the hypotrichida (Protozoa: Ciliophora) of some Austrian soil. Archiv Fur Protistenkunde, 126:19-143.
  9. Foissner W, 1991. Basic light and scanning electron microscopic methods for taxonomic studies of ciliated protozoa. European Journal of Protistology, 27:313-330.
  10. Foissner W, Didier P, 1981. Morphologie und infraciliatur einiger kinetofragminophorer und hypotricher ciliaten aus den Fliessgewässern von Besse-en-Chandesse (Frankreich). Annales de la Station limnologique de Besse, 15:254-275.
  11. Gao F, Yi Z, Gong J, Al-Rasheid KAS, Song W, 2010. Molecular phylogeny and species separation of five morphologically similar Holosticha-complex ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) using ARDRA riboprinting and multigene sequence data. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 28:542-548.
  12. Hall TA, 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/ NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, 41:95-98.
  13. Hu X, Suzuki T, 2004. A new species of Holosticha (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida) from the coastal waters of Nagasaki, Japan: Holosticha nagasakiensis sp. nov. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 84:9-13.
  14. Jung JH, Baek YS, Min GS, 2011. New record of two Apokeronopsis species (Ciliophora: Urostylida: Pseudokeronopsidae) from Korea. Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology, 27:115- 122.
  15. Kahl A, 1932. Urtiere oder Protozoa I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliata (Infusoria), 3. Spirotricha. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 25: 399-650.
  16. Kahl A, 1933. Ciliata libera et ectocommensalia. Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostsee, 23:29-146.
  17. Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M, 2004. MEGA3: Integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Briefings in Bioinformatics, 5:150-163.
  18. Li L, Khan SN, Ji D, Shin MK, Berger H, 2011. Morphology and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of the new brackish water ciliate Neobakuella flava n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotricha, Bakuellidae) and SSU rRNA gene sequences of six additional hypotrichs from Korea. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 58:339-351.
  19. Li L, Song W, Hu X, 2007. Two marine hypotrichs from north China, with description of Spiroamphisiella hembergeri gen. nov., spec. nov. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). Acta Protozoologica, 46:107-120.
  20. Li L, Zhang Q, Hu X, Warren A, Al-Rasheid KAS, Al-Khedheiry AA, Song W, 2009. A redescription of the marine hypotrichous ciliate, Nothoholosticha fasciola (Kahl, 1932) nov gen., nov comb. (Ciliophora: Urostylida) with brief notes on its cellular reorganization and SS rRNA gene sequence. European Journal of Protistology, 45:237-248.
  21. Lynn DH, 2008. The ciliated protozoa: characterization, classification, and guide to the literature. Springer, New York, pp. 1-605.
  22. Shao C, Song W, Al-Rasheid KAS, Yi Z, Chen X, Al-Farraj SA, Al-Quraishy SA, 2008. Morphology and infraciliature of two new marine urostylid ciliates: Metaurostylopsis struederkypkeae n. sp. and Thigmokeronopsis stoecki n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) from China. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 55:289-296.
  23. Song W, Petz W, Warren A, 2001. Morphology and morphogenesis of the poorly-known marine urostylid ciliate, Metaurostylopsis marina (Kahl, 1932) nov. gen., nov. comb. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). European Journal of Protistology, 37:63-76.
  24. Song W, Wilbert N, 2002. Faunistic studies on marine ciliates from the Antarctic benthic area, including descriptions of one epizoic form, 6 new species and, 2 new genera (Protozoa: Ciliophora). Acta Protozoologica, 41:23-61.
  25. Wirnsberger E, Foissner W, 1987. Morphologie von Holosticha xanthichroma sp. n. und die variabilitat der infraciliatur in der gattung Holosticha (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). Acta Protozoologica, 26:1-8.
  26. Yi Z, Song W, 2011. Evolution of the order Urostylida (Protozoa, Ciliophora): new hypotheses based on multi-gene information and identification of localized incongruence. PLoS ONE, 6:e17471.

Cited by

  1. (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2003 vol.60, pp.6, 2013,
  2. New record of Apoholosticha sinica (Ciliophora, Urostylida) from the UK: morphology, 18S rRNA gene phylogeny and notes on morphogenesis vol.65, pp.8, 2015,
  3. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequence analysis of two hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) including the new species Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp. vol.15, pp.5, 2016,
  4. Taxonomic survey on ciliate diversity in eastern area of Kangwon-province, Korea: Brief records of fifteen species unrecorded from Korea vol.5, pp.3, 2016,