Anthocyanin Stability and Silage Fermentation Quality of Colored Barley

  • Received : 2012.09.03
  • Accepted : 2012.10.28
  • Published : 2012.12.31


This study was conducted to observe the fermentative quality and anthocyanin content in whole crop colored barley silage during storage periods and anthocyanin stability in in vitro ruminal fluid. Silages of colored barley cultivar "Boanchalbori" and normal barley cultivar "Yuyeonbori" were stored during 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 months. The in vitro ruminal fluid was fermented for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hrs. For the feed value, crude protein of colored barley silage was slightly increased in the silage compared to that of normal barley silage, and being increased up to 2 months after ensiling and thereafter maintained at the similar level. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of both the barley significantly increased by prolonged storage of 2 months (p<0.05), but they were maintained at the constant level after 2 months of storing silage. Whereas TDN (total digestible nutrients) contents of them were decreased by the prolonged storage of 2 months (p<0.05), then maintained at the constant levels. The fermentative quality and pH values in both the barley silages were slightly decreased during the storage time. Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were increased during prolonged storage period, but not significantly different among treatments. Butyric acid was not detected. In the colored barley silage, pH value showed slightly lower compared to that of the normal barley silage but not significant, and lactic acid content was significantly higher than the normal barley silage (p<0.05). The total anthocyanin content in the whole crop colored barley silage decreased to 42% after 2 months of ensilage, however maintained at the constant level until 12 months of ensilage. In the case of anthocyanin stability on in vitro ruminal fluid digestion, the pH value of the ruminal fluid was slightly lower at 6, 12, 24, 48h incubation time and the content of anthocyanin was at similar levels. These results indicated that the colored barley showed higher fermentation quality, and total anthocyanin content was maintained stable at 42% level of the first value in storing silage. As the anthocyanin had higher stability in the ruminal fluid, the colored barley has a potential as functional feeds for Ruminants.


Grant : Cooperative Research Program for Agricultural Science & Technology Development

Supported by : RDA


  1. AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 17th eds. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD. Cevallos-Casals, B.A. and Cisneros-Zevallos, L. 2004. Stability of anthocyaninbased aqueous extracts of Andean purple corn and red-fleshed sweet potato compared to synthetic and natural colorants. Food Chemistry. 86:69-77.
  2. Charmley, E. 2000. Towards improved silage quality-A review. Crops and Livestock Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Nappan, Nova Scotia, Canada B0L 1C0.
  3. Chen, P.K., Chu, S.C., Chiou, H.L., Kou, W.H., Chiang, C.L. and Hsieh, Y. S. 2006. Mulberry anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3- glucoside, exhibited and inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of a human lung cancer cell line. Cancer Letters. 235:248-259.
  4. Cottyn, B.G., Boucque, C.H.V., Fiems, L.O., Vanacker, J.M. and Buysse, F.X. 1985. Unwilted and prewilted grass silage for finishing bulls. Grass and Forage Science. 40:119-125.
  5. Dijkstra, J., Forbes, J.M. and France, J. 2005. Introduction. In: Quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and metabolism, 2nd Ed. (Ed. J. Dijkstra, J. M. Forbes and J. France). CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. pp. 1-10.
  6. Fimognari, C., Berti, F., Nusse, M., Forti, G.C. and Hrelia, P. 2005. In vitro antitumor activity of cyanidin-3-O-$\beta$-glucopyranoside. Chemotheraphy. 51:332-335.
  7. Francis, F. 1989. Food colourants: Anthocyanins. Critical. Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 28:273-314.
  8. Heo, J.M., Lee, S.K., Lee, I.D., Lee, B.D. and Bae, H.C. 2005. Effect of different growing stages of winter cereal crops on the quality of silage materials and silages. Journal of Animal Science and Technology. (Korea.) 47(5):877-890.
  9. Holland, C., Kezar, W., Kautz, W.P., Lazowski, E.J., Mahanna, W.C. and Reinhart, R. 1990. Pioneer Hi-Bred Intemational, Inc., Des moines, IA.
  10. Hosoda K., Eruden, B., Matsuyama, H. and Shioya, S. 2009. Silage fermentative quality and characteristics of anthocyanin stability in anthocyanin- rich corn (Zea mays L.). Asian-Aust. Journal of Animal Science. 22(4):528-533.
  11. Hyun, J.W. and Chung, H.S. 2004. Cyanidin and malvidin from Oryza sativa cv. Heugjinju-byeo mediate cytotoxicity against human monocytic leukemia cells by arrest of G(2)/M phase and induction of apoptosis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52:2213-2217.
  12. Katsuzaki, H., Hibasami, H., Ohwaki, S., Ishikawa, K., Imai, K., Date, K., Kimura, Y. and Komiya, T. 2003. Cyanidin-3-O-$\beta$-D-glucoside isolated from skin of black Glycine max and other anthocyanins isolated from skin of red grape induce apoptosis in human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells. Oncology Reports. 10:297-300.
  13. Mazza, G. and Miniati, E. 1993. Anthocyanins in fruits, vegetables and grains. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  14. Marten, G.C. and Barnes, R.F. 1980. Prediction of energy digestibility of forages with In vitro rumen fermentation and fungal enzyme systems, in standardiztion of analytical methodology for feeds. Proceedings of a workshop held in Ottawa, Canada. Ottawa, Ont. IDRC.
  15. Miyazawa, T., Nakagawa, K., Kudo, M., Muraishi, K. and Someya, K. 1999. Direct intestinal absorption of red fruit anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, into rats and humans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47: 1083-1091.
  16. Passamonti, S., Vrhovsek, U., Vanzo, A. and Mattivi. F. 2003. The stomach as a site for anthocyanins absorption from food. FEBS Lett. 544(1-3):210-3.
  17. Park, T.L., Han, O.k., Seo, J.H., Choi, J.S., Park, K.H. and Kim, J.G. 2008. New barley cultivars whit improved morphological characteristics for whole crop forage in Korea. Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science. 28(3):193-202.
  18. SAS. 2002. SAS system Releas 9.1, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  19. Seeram, N.P., Momin, R.A., Nair, M.G. and Bourquin, L.D. 2001. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries. phytomedicene. 8:362-369.
  20. Song, T.H., Han, O.K., Park, T.I. Kim, Y.K., Kim, K.J. and Park, K.H. 2012. Effect of nitrogen top dressing levels on productivity feed value, and anthocyanin content of colored barley. Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science. 32(2):149-156.
  21. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy science. 74: 3583-3597.