Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Balance in Green Manure-Rice Cropping Systems without Incorporation of Green Manure Crops

녹비작물 무 환원-벼 작부체계에서 질소와 인산수지 평가

  • Kim, TaeYoung (Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeonsang National University) ;
  • Daquiado, Aileen Rose (Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeonsang National University) ;
  • Alam, Faridul (Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeonsang National University) ;
  • Lee, YongBok (Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeonsang National University)
  • 김태영 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부) ;
  • 아일린 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부) ;
  • 파리둘 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부) ;
  • 이용복 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부)
  • Received : 2012.11.14
  • Accepted : 2012.12.18
  • Published : 2012.12.31


BACKGROUND: The nutrient balance in Korea during 1985-2006 had continually increased and maintained the highest levels among OECD countries. The use of green manure crops such as barley and hairy vetch is common practice for reducing chemical fertilizer application and maintaining soil fertility. However, green manure crops can also be used as a livestock feeding material which may reduce nutrient balance in the national scale. We calculated nitrogen and phosphate balance under green manure-rice cultivating system where all green manure was removed and used for feeding livestock. METHODS AND RESULTS: The barley and hairy vetch grown in pure stands or in mixtures with different sowing rates were tested for rice cultivation without chemical fertilization. The conventional fertilization (NPK) for rice cultivation was selected to compare nutrient balance with green manure-rice cultivation. Nitrogen and phosphate balance were calculated according to the surface balance method of the PARCOM guidelines. Total aboveground biomass of mixture (barley and hairy vetch) was higher compared to that of pure barley or hairy vetch. Among the mixture with barley and hairy vetch, the highest aboveground biomass was observed in B75H25 (barley 75%+hairy vetch 25%). The nitrogen and phosphate balance in the B75H25 mixture was-104 kg N/ha and-50.3 kg P/ha, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): The barley and hairy vetch mixture proved to be a very effective strategy for biomass production of green manure. The amount of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer to be applied is estimated to be 104 kg N/ha and 50.3 kg P/ha in order to maintain soil fertility if all green manure and rice straw were removed from rice field for livestock feeding.


Supported by : Rural Development Administration


  1. Connolly, J., 1986. On difficulties with replacement-series methodology in mixture experiments. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23, 125-137.
  2. Jeon, W.T., Seong, K.Y., Kim, M.T., Oh, G.J., Oh, I.S. Kang, U.G., 2010. Changes of soil physical properties by glomalin concentration and rice yield using different green manure crops in paddy, Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 43, 119-123.
  3. Jeon, W.T., Seong, K.Y., Oh, G.J., Kim, M.T., Lee, Y.H., Kang, U.G., Lee, H.B., Kang, H.W., 2012. Changes of biomass of green manure and rice growth and yield using leguminous crops and barley mixtures by cutting height at paddy, Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 45, 192-197.
  4. Kim, P.J., Lee, Y.B., Lee, Y., Yun, H.B., Lee, K.D., 2008. Evaluation of livestock manure utilization rates as agricultural purpose in developed OECD countries by using nutrient balances, Korean J. Environ. Agri. 27, 337-342.
  5. Lee, H.J., 1983. Korean Agricultural Technology History, pp. 433-457, Jungminsa, Korea.
  6. Lee, S.K., Lee, M.G., 1987. Studies on physiological nitrogen fixation. J. Korean Soc. Soil Sci. Fertil. 20, 185-192.
  7. Papastylianou, I., 1988. The 15N methodology in estimating $N_{2}$ fixation by vetch and pea grown in pure stand or in mixtures with oat, Pant and Soil, 107, 183-188.
  8. Power, J.F., Doran, J.W., Koerner, P.T., 1991. Hairy vetch as a winter cover crop for dryland corn production, J. Prod. Agric. 4, 62-67.
  9. RDA, 2003. Standard methods for agricultural experiments, Rural Development Administration, Korea.
  10. Seo, J.H., Lee, H.J., Hur, I.B., Kim, S.J., Kim, C.K., Jo, H.S., 2000. Comparisons of Soil Nitrate and Corn Nitrogen Uptake According to Winter Forage Rye and Green Manure Hairy Vetch, J. Korean Grassi. Sci. 20(3), 199-206.
  11. Utomo, M., Frye, W.W., Blevins, R.L., 1990. Sustaining soil nitrogen for corn using hairy vetch cover crop. Agron. J. 82, 979-983.

Cited by

  1. Effects of Liquid Pig Manure on Yield and Nutrition Supply of Green Manure Crops in Jeju vol.48, pp.6, 2015,