DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Long-term Exposure to Black Carbon Particles on Growth and Gas Exchange Rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica Seedlings

  • Yamaguchi, Masahiro ;
  • Otani, Yoko ;
  • Takeda, Kenta ;
  • Lenggoro, I. Wuled ;
  • Ishida, Atsushi ;
  • Yazaki, Kenichi ;
  • Noguchi, Kyotaro ;
  • Sase, Hiroyuki ;
  • Murao, Naoto ;
  • Nakaba, Satoshi ;
  • Yamane, Kenichi ;
  • Kuroda, Katsushi ;
  • Sano, Yuzou ;
  • Funada, Ryo ;
  • Izuta, Takeshi
  • Received : 2012.05.31
  • Accepted : 2012.08.07
  • Published : 2012.12.31

Abstract

To clarify the effects of black carbon (BC) particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Asian forest tree species, the seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to BC particles with sub-micron size for two growing seasons from 1 June 2009 to 11 November 2010. The BC particles deposited after the exposure to BC were observed on the foliar surface of the 4 tree species. At the end of the experiment, the amount of BC accumulated on the foliar surface after the exposure to BC aerosols were 0.13, 0.69, 0.32 and 0.58 mg C $m^{-2}$ total leaf area in F. crenata, C. sieboldii, L. kaempferi and C. japonica seedlings, respectively. In August 2010, the exposure to BC particles did not significantly affect net photosynthetic rate under any light intensity, stomatal diffusive conductance to water vapour ($g_s$), stomatal limitation of photosynthesis, response of $g_s$ to increase in vapour pressure deficit and leaf temperature under light saturated condition in the leaves or needles of the seedlings. These results suggest that the BC particles deposited on the foliar surface did not reduce net photosynthesis by shading, did not increase leaf temperature by absorption of irradiation light, and did not induce plugging of stomata in the leaves or needles of the seedlings. There were no significant effects of BC particles on the increments of plant height and stem base diameter during the experimental period and the whole-plant dry mass at the end of the experiment. These results indicate that the exposure to BC particles with sub-micron size for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth and leaf or needle gas exchange rates of F. crenata, C. sieboldii, L. kaempferi and C. japonica seedlings.

Keywords

Forest tree species;Black carbon particles;Exposure;Growth;Gas exchange rates;Stomatal diffusive conductance

References

  1. Beckett, K.P., Freer-Smith, P.H., Taylor, G. (2000) Particulate pollution capture by urban trees: effect of species and windspeed. Global Change Biology 6, 995-1003. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2000.00376.x
  2. Burkhardt, J., Kaiser, H., Kappen, L., Goldbach, H.E. (2001) The possible role of aerosols on stomatal conductivity for water vapour. Basic and Applied Ecology 2, 351-364. https://doi.org/10.1078/1439-1791-00062
  3. Chin, M., Diehl, T., Ginoux, P., Malm, W. (2007) Intercontinental transport of pollution and dust aerosols: Implications for regional air quality. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7, 5501-5517. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-5501-2007
  4. Colvile, R.N. (2002) Emissions, dispersion and atmospheric transformation. In Air Pollution and Plant Life, second edition (Bell, J.N.B. and Treshow, M. Eds), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, England, pp. 23-42.
  5. Fluckiger, W., Oertli, J., Fluckiger, H. (1979) Relationship between stomatal diffusive resistance and various applied particle size on leaf surfaces. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenphysiologie 91, 173-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-328X(79)80091-4
  6. Fowler, D. (2002) Pollutant deposition and uptake by vegetation. In Air Pollution and Plant Life, second edition (Bell, J.N.B. and Treshow, M. Eds), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, England, pp. 43-68.
  7. Freer-Smith, P.H., Beckett, K.P., Taylor, G. (2005) Deposition velocities to Sorbus aria, Acer campestre, Populus deltoides${\times}$trichocarpa 'Beaupre', Pinus nigra and ${\times}$ Cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultrafine particles in the urban environment. Environmental Pollution 133, 157-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2004.03.031
  8. Hirano, T., Kiyota, M., Aiga, I. (1991) The effects of dust by covering and plugging stomata and by increasing leaf temperature on photosynthetic rate of plant leaves. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 46, 215-222. (in Japanese with English summary) https://doi.org/10.2480/agrmet.46.215
  9. Hirano, T., Kiyota, M., Aiga, I. (1995) Physical effects of dust on leaf physiology of cucumber and kidney bean plants. Environmental Pollution 89, 255-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(94)00075-O
  10. Hwang, H.-J., Yook, S.-J., Ahn, K.-H. (2011) Experimental investigation of submicron and ultrafine soot particle removal by tree leaves. Atmospheric Environment 45, 6987-6994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.019
  11. Izuta, T., Funada, R. (2010). Toward the clarification of the effects of aerosol on forests in East Asia. Hoppo Ringyo 62, 5-8. (in Japanese)
  12. Kasahara, M. (2004). Source and characteristics of aerosols. In Glossary of Aerosol Science (Edited by Japan Association of Aerosol Science and Technology), pp. 22-23. Kyoto University Press, Japan. (in Japanese)
  13. Lenggoro, I.W., Xia, B., Okuyama, K. (2002) Sizing of colloidal nanoparticles by electrospray and differential mobility analyzer methods. Langmuir 18, 4584-4591. https://doi.org/10.1021/la015667t
  14. Matsuda, K., Fujimura, Y., Hayashi, K., Takahashi, A., Nakaya, K. (2010) Deposition velocity of PM2.5 sulfate in the summer above a deciduous forest in central Japan. Atmospheric Environment 44, 4582-4587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.08.015
  15. Matsuda, K., Sase, H., Murao, N., Fukazawa, T., Khoomsub, K., Chanonmuang, P., Visaratana, T., Khummongkol, P. (2012) Dry and wet deposition of elemental carbon on a tropical forest in Thailand. Atmospheric Environment 54, 282-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.02.022
  16. Ohara, T., Akimoto, H., Kurokawa, J., Horii, N., Yamaji, K., Yan, X., Hayasaka, T. (2007) An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources for the period 1980-2020. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 7, 6843-6902. https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-7-6843-2007
  17. Petroff, A., Mailliat, A., Amielh, M., Anselmet, F. (2008) Aerosol dry deposition on vegetative canopies. Part II: A new modelling approach and applications. Atmospheric Environment 42, 3654-3683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.12.060
  18. Ramanathan, V., Carmichael, G. (2008) Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 1, 221-227. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo156
  19. Ricks, G.R., Williams, R.J.H. (1974) Effects of atmospheric pollution on deciduous woodland part 2: Effects of particulate matter upon stomatal diffusion resistance in leaves of Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Leibl. Environmental Pollution 6, 87-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-9327(74)90026-3
  20. Roelfsema, M.R.G., Hedrich, R. (2005) In the light of stomatal opening: new insights into 'the Watergate'. New Phytologist 167, 665-691. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01460.x
  21. Ruijgrok, W., Tieben, H., Eisinga, P. (1997) The dry deposition of particles to a forest canpy: A comparison of model and experimental results. Atmospheric Environment 31, 399-415. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(96)00089-1
  22. Sase, H., Takamatsu, T., Yoshida, T. (1998) Variation in amount and elemental composition of epicuticular wax in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) leaves associated with natural environmental factors. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28, 87-97.
  23. Wang, W.-N., Purwanto, A., Lenggoro, I.W., Okuyama, K., Chang, H., Jang, H.D. (2008) Investigation on the correlations between droplet and particle size distribution in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 47, 1650-1659. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie070821d
  24. WHO (World Health Organization) (2012) Health effects of black carbon. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Bonn.

Cited by

  1. Responses of gas-exchange rates and water relations to annual fluctuations of weather in three species of urban street trees vol.34, pp.10, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpu086
  2. Canopy, leaf surface structure and tree phenology: Arboreal factors influencing aerosol deposition in forests vol.71, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.2480/agrmet.D-14-00011
  3. Consideration of Temperature and Slip Correction for Photothermal Spectrometry vol.9, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5572/ajae.2015.9.1.086
  4. Effect of epicuticular wax crystals on the localization of artificially deposited sub-micron carbon-based aerosols on needles of Cryptomeria japonica vol.129, pp.5, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-016-0839-7
  5. Investigating and comparing short period impact of dust on physiological characteristics of three species of Pinus eldarica, Cupressus sempervirens, and Ligustrum ovalifolium vol.9, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-015-2241-5

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology