- Volume 13 Issue 9
DOI QR Code
Should Male Circumcision be Advocated for Genital Cancer Prevention?
- Morris, Brian J. ;
- Mindel, Adrian ;
- Tobian, Aaron A.R. ;
- Hankins, Catherine A. ;
- Gray, Ronald H. ;
- Bailey, Robert C. ;
- Bosch, Xavier ;
- Wodak, Alex D.
- Published : 2012.09.30
The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention. While HPV vaccination of boys should help reduce anal cancer in homosexual men and cervical cancer in women, it will have little or no impact on penile or prostate cancer. Male circumcision can reduce cervical, penile and possibly prostate cancer. Promotion of both HPV vaccination and male circumcision will synergistically maximize genital cancer prevention.
Cancer;men's health;women's health;infectious diseases;public health;sexual health;urology
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011). Cancer in Australia: actual incidence and mortality data from 1982 to 2007 and projections to 2010. Asia Pacific J Clin Oncol 7, 325-38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-7563.2011.01502.x
- Albero G, Castellsague X, Giuliano AR, Bosch FX (2012). Male circumcision and genital human papillomavirus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Dis, 39, 104-113. https://doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3182387abd
- American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision (2012). Circumcision policy statement. Pediatrics 130, 585-6 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1989
- Backes DM, Bleeker MC, Meijer CJ, et al (2012). Male circumcision is associated with a lower prevalence of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions among Kenyan men. Int J Cancer 130, 1888-97. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.26196
- Bosch X, Albero G, Castellsague X (2009). Male circumcision, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: from evidence to intervention. J Fam Plann Reprod Hlth Care, 35, 5-7. https://doi.org/10.1783/147118909787072270
- Brotherton JM, Fridman M, May CL, et al (2011). Early effect of the HPV vaccination programme on cervical abnormalities in Victoria, Australia: an ecological study. Lancet, 377, 2085-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60551-5
- Cancer Council of Australia (2011). Facts and figures. http://www.cancer.org.au/aboutcancer/FactsFigures.htm (last accessed 12 Aug 2012)
- Cancer Council of Australia (2012) Neonatal male circumcision and cancer. http://www.cancer.org.au//Newsmedia/Issues_in_the_media/male_circumcision_cancer.htm (last accessed 18 July 2012).
- Canfell K, Sitas F, Beral V (2006). Cervical cancer in Australia and the United Kingdom: comparison of screening policy and uptake, and cancer incidence and mortality. Med J Aust 185, 482-86.
- Castellsague X, Bosch X, Munoz N, et al (2002). Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med, 346, 1105-12. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa011688
- Chaux A, Cubilla AL (2012) Advances in the pathology of penile carcinomas. Hum Pathol, 43, 771-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2012.01.014
- Joura EA, Garland SM, Paavonen J, et al. (2012). Effect of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in a subgroup of women with cervical and vulvar disease. BMJ 344, 1401. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e1401
- Kacker S, Frick KD, Gaydos CA, Tobian AAR (2012). Costs and effectiveness of neonatal male circumcision. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 166, 910-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.1440
- Larke NL, Thomas SL, dos Santos Silva I, Weiss HA (2011) Male circumcision and penile cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control, 22, 1097-110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-011-9785-9
- Mirralles-Guri C, Bruni L, Cubilla AL, et al (2006). Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in penile carcinoma. J Clin Pathol 62, 870-878.
- Morris BJ, Waskett JH, Bailis SA (2007). Case number and financial impact of circumcision in reducing prostate cancer. BJU Int 100, 5-6.
- Morris BJ, Gray RH, Castellsague X, et al (2011). The strong protective effects of circumcision against cancer of the penis. Adv Urol, 812368, 1-21.
- Morris BJ, Wodak AD, Mindel A, et al (2012a). The 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians policy statement 'Circumcision of infant males' is not evidence based. Intern Med J 42, 822-828. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-5994.2012.02823.x
- Morris BJ, Waskett JH, Banerjee J, et al (2012b). A 'snip' in time: what is the best age to circumcise? BMC Pediatr, 12, 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-12-1
- Morris BJ, Wodak AD, Mindel A, et al (2012c). Infant male circumcision: An evidence-based policy statement. Open J Prevent Med, 2, 79-92. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2012.21012
- Parliament of Australia (2007). National Health Amendment (National HPV Vaccination Program Register) Bill 2007. http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/bd/2007-08/08bd007.pdf (last accessed 13 Aug 2012).
- Poynten IM, Jin F, Templeton DJ, et al. (2012). Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for human papillomavirus 16 seropositivity in Australian homosexual men. Sex Transm Dis, 39, 726-732. https://doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31825d5cb8
- Rora E, Iftner T, Vidart JA, et al (2012). Predictors of human papillomavirus infection in women undergoing routine cervical cancer screening in Spain: the CLEOPATRE study. BMC Infect Dis 12 (article 145).
- Royal Australasian College of Physicians (2010). Circumcision of infant males. Available from URL: http://www.racp.edu.au/page/ policy-and-advocacy/paediatrics-and-child-health (last accessed 12 Aug 2012)
- Schoen EJ, Colby CJ, To TT (2006). Cost analysis of neonatal circumcision in a large health maintenance organization. J Urol, 175, 1111-1115. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00399-X
- Wawer MJ, Tobian AA, Kigozi G, et al (2011). Effect of circumcision of HIV-negative men on transmission of human papillomavirus to HIV-negative women: a randomised trial in Rakai, Uganda. Lancet, 377, 209-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61967-8
- Wilson LE, Gravitt P, Tobian AAR, et al (2012) Male circumcision reduces penile high-risk human papillomavirus load in a randomised clinical trial in Rakai, Uganda. Sex Trans Infect Nov 6 [Epub ahead of print].
- Wright JL, Lin DW, Stanford JL (2012). Circumcision and the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer, 118, 4437-43. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26653
- Recommendation by a law body to ban infant male circumcision has serious worldwide implications for pediatric practice and human rights vol.13, pp.1, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-13-136
- Effects of circumcision on male sexual functions: a systematic review and meta-analysis vol.15, pp.5, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1038/aja.2013.47
- Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis vol.2013, pp.2090-5815, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/109846
- Veracity and rhetoric in paediatric medicine: a critique of Svoboda and Van Howe's response to the AAP policy on infant male circumcision vol.40, pp.7, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2013-101614
- Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution among women attending routine gynecological examinations in Saudi Arabia vol.14, pp.1, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-014-0643-8
- Does Male Circumcision Protect against Sexually Transmitted Infections? Arguments and Meta-Analyses to the Contrary Fail to Withstand Scrutiny vol.2014, pp.2090-5815, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/684706
- Critical evaluation of unscientific arguments disparaging affirmative infant male circumcision policy vol.5, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5409/wjcp.v5.i3.251
- Early infant male circumcision: Systematic review, risk-benefit analysis, and progress in policy vol.6, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.5409/wjcp.v6.i1.89
- The Ethical Course Is To Recommend Infant Male Circumcision — Arguments Disparaging American Academy of Pediatrics Affirmative Policy Do Not Withstand Scrutiny vol.45, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1177/1073110517750603