- Volume 13 Issue 9
Background: The potential use of hypomethylation of Long INterspersed Element 1 (LINE-1) and Alu elements (Alu) as a biomarker has been comprehensively assessed in several cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Failure to detect occult metastatic head and neck tumors on radical neck lymph node dissection can affect the therapeutic measures taken. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the LINE-1 and Alu methylation status and determine whether it can be applied for detection of occult metastatic tumors in HNSCC cases. Methods: We used the Combine Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) technique to analyse LINE-1 and Alu methylation status. In addition to the methylation level, LINE-1 and Alu loci were classified based on the methylation statuses of two CpG dinucleotides in each allele as follows: hypermethylation (
Long INterspersed element-1s (LINE-1s);Alu elements;DNA methylation;lymph nodes;occult tumor
- Ahrendt SA, Yang SC, Wu L, et al (2002). Molecular assessment of lymph nodes in patients with resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer: preliminary results of a prospective study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 123, 466-73. https://doi.org/10.1067/mtc.2002.120343
- Aporntewan C, Phokaew C, Piriyapongsa J, et al (2011). Hypomethylation of intragenic LINE-1 represses transcription in cancer cells through AGO2. PLoS One, 6, 17934. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017934
- Bennett KL, Karpenko M, Lin MT, et al (2008). Frequently methylated tumor suppressor genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res, 68, 4494-9. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6509
- Bird A (2002). DNA methaile SR, Stoeckli SJ (2011). Longterm experience in sentinel node biopsy for early oral and orophylation patterns and epigenetic memory. Genes Dev, 16, 6-21.
- Broglie MA (2012). Haryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol, 18, 2732-8.
- Chalitchagorn K, Shuangshoti S, Hourpai N, et al (2004). Distinctive pattern of LINE-1 methylation level in normal tissues and the association with carcinogenesis. Oncogene, 23, 8841-6. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1208137
- Cho NY, Kim BH, Choi M, et al (2007). Hypermethylation of CpG island loci and hypomethylation of LINE-1 and Alu repeats in prostate adenocarcinoma and their relationship to clinicopathological features. J Pathol, 211, 269-77. https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2106
- Choi IS, EstecioMR, Nagano Y, et al (2007). Hypomethylation of LINE-1 and Alu in well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (pancreatic endocrine tumors and carcinoid tumors). Mod Pathol, 20, 802-10. https://doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.3800825
- Coello MC, Luketich JD, Litle VR, Godfrey TE (2004). Prognostic significance of micrometastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer, 5, 214-25. https://doi.org/10.3816/CLC.2004.n.002
- Esteller M (2011). Epigenetic changes in cancer. F1000 Biol Rep, 3, 9.
- Fazzari MJ, Greally JM (2004). Epigenomics: beyond CpG islands. Nat Rev Genet, 5, 446-55. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg1349
- Gu CD, Osaki T, Oyama T, et al (2002). Detection of micrometastatic tumor cells in pN0 lymph nodes of patients with completely resected nonsmall cell lung cancer: impact on recurrence and Survival. Ann Surg, 235, 133-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000658-200201000-00017
- Harden SV, Tokumaru Y, Westra WH, et al (2003). Gene promoter hypermethylation in tumors and lymph nodes of stage I lung cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res, 9, 1370-5.
- Hoffmann MJ, Schulz WA (2005). Causes and consequences of DNA hypomethylation in human cancer. Biochem Cell Biol, 83, 296-321. https://doi.org/10.1139/o05-036
- Imoto S, Ochiai A, Okumura C, Wada N, Hasebe T (2006). Impact of isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes detected by immunohisto chemical staining. Eur J Surg Oncol, 32, 1175-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2006.08.006
- Iramaneerat K, Rattanatunyong P, Khemapech N, Triratanachat S, Mutirangura A (2011). HERV-K hypomethylation in ovarian clear cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis and platinum resistance. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 21, 51-7. https://doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0b013e3182021c1a
- Jintaridth P, Mutirangura A (2010). Distinctive patterns of age-dependent hypomethylation in interspersed repetitive sequences. Physiol Genomics, 41, 194-200. https://doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00146.2009
- Kitkumthorn N, Mutirangura A (2011). Long interspersed nuclear element-1 hypomethylation in cancer: biology and clinical application. Clin Epigenet, 2, 315-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13148-011-0032-8
- Kitkumthorn N, Tuangsintanakul T, Rattanatanyong P, Tiwawech D, Mutirangura A (2012). LINE-1 methylation in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cancer patients. Clinica Chimica Acta, 413, 869-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2012.01.024
- Kongruttanachok N, Phuangphairoj C, Thongnak A, et al (2010). Replication independent DNA double-strand break retention may prevent genomic instability. Mol Cancer, 9, 70. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-4598-9-70
- Levy S, Sutton G, Ng PC, et al (2007). The diploid genome sequence of an individual human. PLoS Biol, 5, 254. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050254
- Manikantan K, Dwivedi RC, Sayed SI, Pathak KA, Kazi R (2012). Current concepts of surveillance and its significance in head and neck cancer. Ann R Coll Surg Engl, 93, 576-82.
- Nopavichai C, Sanpawat A, Kantabandit P, Mutirangura A, Shuangshoti S (2012). Changes in LINE-1 methylation level in cancers during metastasis. Asian Biomedicine, 6, 307-12.
- Pattamadilok J, Huapai N, Rattanatanyong P, et al (2008). LINE-1 hypomethylation level as a potential prognostic factor for epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 18, 711-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1438.2007.01117.x
- Phokaew C, Kowudtitham S, Subbalekha K, Shuangshoti S, Mutirangura A (2008). LINE-1 methylation patterns of different loci in normal and cancerous cells. Nucleic Acids Res, 36, 5704-12. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn571
- Pobsook T, Subbalekha K, Sannikorn P, Mutirangura A (2011). Improved measurement of LINE-1 sequence methylation for cancer detection. Clin Chim Acta, 412, 314-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2010.10.030
- Rahbari NN, Bork U, Motschall E, et al (2012). Molecular detection of tumor cells in regional lymph nodes is associated with disease recurrence and poor survival in node-negative colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol, 30, 60-70. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.36.9504
- Riethdorf S, Wikman H, Pantel K (2008). Review: Biological relevance of disseminated tumor cells in cancer patients. Int J Cancer, 123, 1991-2006. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23825
- Shimizu Y, Takeuchi H, Sakakura Y, et al (2012). Molecular Detection of Sentinel Node Micrometastases in Patients with Clinical N0 Gastric Carcinoma with Real-time Multiplex Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay. Ann Surg Oncol, 19, 469-77. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-011-2122-4
- Shuangshoti S, Hourpai N, Pumsuk U, Mutirangura A (2007). Line-1 hypomethylation in multistage carcinogenesis of the uterine cervix. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 8, 307-9.
- Singer H, Walier M, Nusgen N, et al (2012). Methylation of L1Hs promoters is lower on the inactive X, has a tendency of being higher on autosomes in smaller genomes and shows inter-individual variability at some loci. Hum Mol Genet, 21, 219-35. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddr456
- Smith IM, Mydlarz WK, Mithani SK, Califano JA (2007). DNA global hypomethylation in squamous cell head and neck cancer associated with smoking, alcohol consumption and stage. Int J Cancer, 121, 1724-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.22889
- Tangkijvanich P, Hourpai N, Rattanatanyong P, et al (2007). Serum LINE-1 hypomethylation as a potential prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Chim Acta, 379, 127-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2006.12.029
- Tsavellas G, Patel H, Allen-Mersh TG (2001). Detection and clinical significance of occult tumour cells in colorectal cancer. Br J Surg, 88, 1307-20. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0007-1323.2001.01863.x
- Wada N, Imoto S (2008). Clinical evidence of breast cancer micrometastasis in the era of sentinel node biopsy. Int J Clin Oncol, 13, 24-32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10147-007-0736-0
- Watanabe Y, Maekawa M (2010). Methylation of DNA in cancer. Adv Clin Chem, 52, 145-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2423(10)52006-7
- Zhang X, Hunt JL, Shin DM, Chen ZG (2007). Down-regulation of S100A2 in lymph node metastases of head and neck cancer. Head Neck, 29, 236-43. https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.20511
- Hypomethylation of Alu Elements in Post-Menopausal Women with Osteoporosis vol.8, pp.8, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070386
- Association of in vitro fertilization with global and IGF2/H19 methylation variation in newborn twins vol.6, pp.02, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1017/S2040174415000161
- Breast cancer upregulating genes in stromal cells by LINE-1 hypermethylation and micrometastatic detection vol.8, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.2217/epi-2015-0007
- Methamphetamine (MA) Use Induces Specific Changes in LINE-1 Partial Methylation Patterns, Which Are Associated with MA-Induced Paranoia: a Multivariate and Neuronal Network Study pp.1559-1182, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1371-7
- Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma drives long interspersed element-1 hypomethylation in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells pp.1354523X, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/odi.12944
- Repetitive Element DNA Methylation is Associated with Menopausal Age vol.9, pp.3, 2018, https://doi.org/10.14336/AD.2017.0810