- Volume 13 Issue 9
Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening rates and the influencing factors in a group of Turkish females. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a School of Nursing. The study sample consisted of 603 females who were the mothers/neighbors or relatives of the nursing students. Data collection forms were developed by the investigators after the relevant literature was screened and were used to collect the data. Results: Of the women aged 30 and over, 32.8% had undergone a pap smear test at least once in their life. Of those aged 50 and over, 48.2% had undergone mammography at least once and FOBT had been performed in 12% of these women in their life. Having heard of the screening tests before, knowing why they are done, and having information on the national cancer screening program were important factors influencing the rates of women having these tests done. Discussion: The results of this study show that the rates of women participating in national cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening programs are not at the desired levels. Having heard of the screening tests before, knowing why they are done, and having information on the national cancer screening program were important factors influencing the rates of women having these tests done. It is suggested that written and visual campaigns to promote the service should be used to educate a larger population, thus increasing the participation rates for cancer screening programs.
Cancer screening;breast cancer;cervical cancer;colorectum;Turkish women;factors
- Alberta Health Services (AHS) (2010). Factors associated with breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening. Calgary, Alberta: Alberta Health Services.
- Al-Dubai SAR, Qureshi AM, Saif-Ali R, et al (2011). Awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and mammography among a group of Malaysian Women in Shah Alam. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 2531-8.
- Altug E, Burhanoglu S, Erkek AB, Kuzu MA (2002). Kolorektal kanserlerin erken teshisinde kullanılan tarama testlerine doktorların yaklasimi. Guncel Gastroenteroloji, 6, 25-8.
- Akyuz A, Guvenc G, Yavan T, et al (2006). Evaluation of the pap smear test status of women and of the factors affecting this status. Gulhane Med J, 48, 25-9.
- Bas K, Guler T, Gunay LM, et al (2012). Public awareness of colorectal cancer in a turkish population: importance of fecal occult blood testing. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 195-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.195
- Bonfill Cosp, X Marzo Castillejo M, Pladevall Vila M., et al (2001). Strategies for increasing the participation of women in community breast cancer screening. Cochrane Db Syst Rev, 1.
- Centers for disease Control and prevention (CDC), (2010). Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates. Web site. http://www. cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal/statistics/screening_rates.htm. Accessed by May 12, 2012.
- Courtney RJ, Paul CL, Sanson-Fisher RW, et al (2012). Colorectal cancer risk assessment and screening recommendation: a community survey of healthcare providers' practice from a patient perspective. BMC Fam Pract, 13, 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2296-13-17
- Cullati S, Charvet-Bérard AI, Perneger TV. (2009). Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes. BMC Public Health, 9, 118. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-118
- Cuzick J (2010). Long-term cervical cancer prevention strategies across the globe. Gynecol Oncol, 117, 11-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2010.01.025
- Celik GO, Malak AT, Ozturk Z, Yilmaz D (2009). Analysis on the condition of women in post menopausal period on their application of breast self-examination and having mammography and pap smear screening. Anatol J Clin Investig, 3, 159-3.
- Day S, Van Dort P, Tay-Teo K (2010). Improving participation in cancer screening programs: a review of social cognitive models, factors affecting participation, and strategies to improve participation. Victorian Cytology Service.
- Dincel E, Kismet K, Erel S, et al (2010). Factors affecting the first mammography age. J Breast Health, 6, 113-7.
- Dundar PE, Ozyurt BC, Erdurak K. (2012). Sociodemographic Determinants of Nonattendance in a Population-Based Mammography Screening Program in the City of Manisa, Turkey. ScientificWorld J. doi:10.1100/2012/816903. https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/816903
- Discigil G, Sensoy N, Tekin N, Soylemez A (2007). Breast health: knowledge, behaviour and performance in a group of women living in the aegean region. Marmara Med J, 20, 29-6.
- Erbil N, Tezcan Y, Gur EN, et al (2011). Factors Affecting cervical screening among Turkish women. Asian Pac J Cancer Pre, 11, 1641-4.
- Guvenc G, Akyuz A, Acikel CH (2011). Health belief model scale for cervical cancer and Pap smear test: psychometric testing. J Adv Nurs, 67, 428-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05450.x
- Gurel SA, Gurel H, Topcuglu A (2009). Investigation of rate and determinants of Pap-test in women attending for a gynecological examination. J Gynecol Obst, 19, 62-6.
- Goel MS, Gracia G, Baker DW (2010). Development and pilot testing of a culturally sensitive multimedia program to improve breast cancer screening in Latina women. Patient Educ Couns, 84, 128-1.
- Gonzalez P, Castaneda SF, Mills PJ, et al (2012). Determinants of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening adherence in Mexican American women. J Community Hlth, 37, 421-3.
- Gotzsche PC, Nielsen M (2009). Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Db Syst Rev, 4(3).
- Jeong SJ, Saroha E, Knight J, et al (2011). Determinants of adequate follow-up of an abnormal Papanicolaou result among Jamaican women in Portland. Jamaica. J Cancer Epidemiol, 35, 211-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2010.07.004
- Lin S-J (2008). Factors influencing the uptake of screening services for breast and cervical cancer in Taiwan. J R Soc Promo Health, 128, 327-4. https://doi.org/10.1177/1466424007092802
- Martin-Moreno JM, Harris M, Garcia-Lopez E Gorgojo L, edited by Tit Albreht and Radivoje Pribakovic Brinovec. (2009).Fighting against cancer today: A policy summary against cancer today : a policy summary. Ljubljana : Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia.
- McFarland DM (2003). Cervical cancer and Pap smear screening in Botswana: knowledge and perceptions. International Council of Nurses. Inter Nurs Rev, 50, 167-5. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-7657.2003.00195.x
- National Cancer Institute (NCI). Cancer Trends Progress Report -2009/2010 Update, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD. Web site. http://progressreport.cancer.gov. Accessed by February 10 2011.
- National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (2010) Health, United States, 2009, With Special Feature on Medical Technology. Hyattsville, MD.
- Nelson HD, Tyne K, Naik A, et al (2009). Screening for breast cancer: Systematic evidence review update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med, 151,727-2. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-151-10-200911170-00009
- Nur N (2010). Breast cancer knowledge and screening behaviors of the female teachers. Women Health, 50, 37-2. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630241003601087
- Tuncer M (2009).Turkiye'de Kanser Kontrolu. T.C. Saglik Bakanligi Kanserle Savas Dairesi Baskanligi yayini. Ankara.
- Wee LE, Koh GC-H, Chin RT, et al (2012) Socioeconomic factors affecting colorectal, breast and cervical cancer screening in an Asian urban low-income setting at baseline and post-intervention. Prev Med, 55, 61-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.04.011
- Whitman S, Shah AM, Silva A, Ansell D (2007). Mammography screening in six diverse communities in Chicago-A population study. Cancer Detect Prev, 31, 166-2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cdp.2006.12.008
- World Health Organization (WHOa) (2007). Cancer control: knowledge into action: WHO guide for effective programmes: Prevention. Switzerland.
- World Health Organization (WHOb) (2007). Cancer control: knowledge into action: WHO guide for effective programmes: Early detection. Switzerland.
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2011). Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Italy. https://doi.org/10.1080/07347330903570453
- Yavan T, Akyuz A, Tosun N, Iyigun E (2010). Women's breast cancer risk perception and attitudes toward screening tests. J Psychosoc Oncol, 28, 189-1. https://doi.org/10.1080/07347330903570453
- The Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2010). OECD Health Data. Web site. http://www.ecosante.fr/OCDEENG/311010.html. Accessed by March 12, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.04.011
- Compliance with Screening Recommendations According to Breast Cancer Risk Levels in Izmir, Turkey vol.14, pp.3, 2013, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.3.1737
- Lifestyle Behaviors and Early Diagnosis Practices of Cancer Patients vol.14, pp.5, 2013, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.3269
- Evaluation of the Knowledge, Behavior and Health Beliefs of Individuals over 50 Regarding Colorectal Cancer Screening vol.14, pp.9, 2013, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.9.5157
- Beyond a Paycheck: The Influence of Workforce Participation on Women’s Cancer Screening in Turkey vol.75, pp.11-12, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0611-4
- The Effect of Education on the Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervix Cancer on the Women’s Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Participating in Screening Programs pp.1543-0154, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-017-1193-8
- Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Health Literacy Levels of Married Women pp.1543-0154, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-017-1242-3
- The Effects of the Nurse Navigation Program in Promoting Colorectal Cancer Screening Behaviors: a Randomized Controlled Trial pp.1543-0154, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-018-1448-z