DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Epidemiology and Histopathological Spectrum of Head and Neck Cancers in Bihar, a State of Eastern India

  • Siddiqui, Md. Salahuddin ;
  • Chandra, Rajeev ;
  • Aziz, Abdul ;
  • Suman, Saurav
  • Published : 2012.08.31

Abstract

Head and neck cancers are amongst the commonest malignancies, accounting for approximately 20% of the cancer burden in India. The major risk factors are tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol consumption, which are all preventable. This retrospective study presents data from the histopathology register for a five year period from 2002-2006 at Patna Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary care hospital drawing patients from the entire Bihar state, the 3rd most populous state of India with the majority of the population residing in rural areas. Incidence rates based on sex, age, site of lesion, including age standardized incidence rates for males and females, with mean age of presentation, distribution of histological variants and year wise trend were calculated. Out of 455 head and neck neoplasias, 241 were benign while 214 were malignant. The most common age group for all malignant biopsies was 7th decade for males and the 5th decade for females. Malignant cases were commoner in males than females with the male:female ratio of 3.1:1, which was found to be statistically significant by the chi-square (${\chi}^2$) test. The crude rate and age standardized incidence rate was 0.05 and 0.06 per 100,000 population respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) contributed about 96% of all cases, with grade I being the most common. Larynx was the most common site for malignancy, the supraglottic region being its most commonly affected sub-site. This observed incidence patterns in the region are a reminder of widespread unawareness, low healthcare utilization with virtually non-existent cancer programs. It also underlines the need to advocate for reliable cost-effective programs to create awareness, for early detection and plan appropriate management strategies. There is a compelling demand for a cancer registry in this region as well as proper implementation of preventive measures to combat this growing threat of cancer, many of whose risk factors are preventable.

Keywords

Head and neck cancers;epidemiology;squamous cell carcinoma;histopathology;Bihar;Eastern India

References

  1. Abhinandan B, A Chakraborty, P Purkaystha, et al (2006). Prevalence of head and neck cancers in the north east - an institutional study. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 58, 15-9.
  2. Agarwal AK, Sethi A, Sareen D, et al (2011). Treatment delay in oral and oropharyngeal cancer in our population: the role of socio-economic factors and health-seeking behaviour. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 63, 145-0. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-011-0134-9
  3. Basu R, Mandal S, Ghosh A, Poddar TK (2008). Role of tobacco in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in an eastern Indian population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 381-6.
  4. Cadoni G, Boccia S, Petrelli L, et al (2012). A review of genetic epidemiology of head and neck cancer related to polymorphisms in metabolic genes, cell cycle control and alcohol metabolism. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital, 32, 1-11.
  5. Chaturvedi VN, Raizada RM, Jain SK, Tyagi NK (1987). Cancer of ear, nose, pharynx, larynx and esophagus in a rural hospital. J Vivekananda Inst Med Sci, 10, 63-7.
  6. Chuang SC, Jenab M, Heck JE, et al (2012). Diet and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium. Cancer Causes Control, 23, 69-88.
  7. Edefonti V, Hashibe M, Ambrogi F, et al (2012). Nutrient-based dietary patterns and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. Ann Oncol, 23, 1869-80. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdr548
  8. Ekramuddaula FM, Siddique BH, Islam MR, Kabir MS, Alam MS (2011). Evaluation of risk factors of oral cancer. Mymensingh Med J, 20, 412-8.
  9. Jacques Bernier, Newell W Johnson, Hemantha K Amarasinghe (2011). Head and Neck Cancer- Multimodality Management, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011, New York, p13.
  10. Jandoo T, Mehrotra R (2008). Tobacco control in India: present scenario and challenges ahead. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 805-10.
  11. Jussawalla DJ, Sathe PV, Yeole BB, Natekar MV (1984). Cancer incidence in Aurangabad city 1978-80. Indian J Cancer, 21, 55-62.
  12. Elango KJ, Suresh A, Erode EM, et al (2011). Role of human papilloma virus in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 889-96.
  13. Jalali MM, Heidarzadeh A, Zavarei MJ, et al (2011). p53 overexpression impacts on the prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1731-4.
  14. Khan NR, Khan AN, Bashir S, et al (2012). Diagnostic utility of p63 (Ab-1) and (Ab-4) tumor markers in the squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 975-8. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.3.975
  15. La Vecchia C, Tavani A, Franceschi S, et al (1997). Epidemiology and prevention of oral cancer. Oral Oncol, 33, 302-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1368-8375(97)00029-8
  16. Mehrotra Ravi, Singh Mamata, Gupta Raj Kishore, Singh Manish, Kapoor Anil K (2005). Trends of prevalence and pathological spectrum of head and neck cancers in North India. Indian J Cancer, 42, 89-93. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-509X.16698
  17. Raval GN, Sainger RN, Rawal RM, et al (2002). Vitamin B12 and folate status in head and neck cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 3, 155-62.
  18. Rautava J, Syrjänen S (2012). Biology of human papillomavirus infections in head and neck carcinogenesis. Head Neck Pathol, 6, 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12105-012-0367-2
  19. Saba NF, Goodman M, Ward K (2011). Gender and ethnic disparities in incidence and survival of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue, base of tongue, and tonsils: a surveillance, epidemiology and end results program-based analysis. Oncology, 81, 12-20. https://doi.org/10.1159/000330807
  20. Sanghvi LD, Rao DN, Joshi S (1989) Epidemiology of head and neck cancers. Semin Surg Oncol, 5, 305-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/ssu.2980050503
  21. Sankaranarayanan R, Masuyer E, Swaminathan R, Ferlay J, Whelan S (1998). Head and neck cancer: a global perspective on epidemiology and prognosis. Anticancer Res, 18, 4779- 86.
  22. Sen U, Sankaranarayanan R, Mandal S, Ramanakumar AV, Parkin DM (2002). Cancer patterns in eastern India: the first report of the Kolkata cancer registry. Int J Cancer, 100, 86-91. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.10446
  23. Thakur S, Chaturvedi V, Singh AK, Puttewar MP, Raizada RM (2001). Pattern of ear, nose, pharynx, larynx and esophagus (ENPLO) cancers in rural based hospital. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 53, 93-9.

Cited by

  1. Stage-Wise Presentation of Non-Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer: an Analysis of Patients from the Kumaon Hills of India vol.15, pp.12, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4957
  2. Cancer: Scenario and Relationship of Different Geographical Areas of the Globe with Special Reference to North East-India vol.15, pp.8, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.8.3721
  3. Epidemiological Study of Laryngeal Carcinoma in Western Nepal vol.16, pp.15, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6541
  4. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Comparative Evaluation of Pathological Parameters in Young and Old Patients vol.16, pp.9, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.9.4061
  5. Clinicopathological Significance of Tumor Lymphatic Vessel Density in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma pp.0973-7707, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-017-1216-0