- Volume 13 Issue 8
DOI QR Code
Literacy and Breast Cancer Prevention: a Population-Based Study from Iran
- Harirchi, Iraj ;
- Azary, Saeedeh ;
- Montazeri, Ali ;
- Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen ;
- Sedighi, Zahra ;
- Keshtmand, Gelavizh ;
- Zarinkolah, Zahra ;
- Soltani, S.M. Amin Khalifeh
- Published : 2012.08.31
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer among women. Evidence suggests that early diagnosis and screening interventions might help to improve outcomes. This population-based study was conducted to determine breast cancer awareness and screening behavior among Iranian women and to examine its association with women's literacy. The study was carried out in two provinces, with 1,477,045 population, located in central and eastern part of Iran. Overall, 770 women were studied. Of these, 482 (62.7%) were literate and 287 (37.3%) were not. The results obtained from the data analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between literate and illiterate women. Further analysis of the data using logistic regression showed that literacy was an important contributing factor for breast cancer prevention behavior. The findings suggest that in order to improve women's health and breast cancer outcomes providing equal educational opportunities for women seems necessary.
Breast cancer awareness;breast self-examination;clinical breast examination;mammography;Iran
- Abd El Aziz HM, Akl OA, Ibrahim HK (2009). Impact of a health education intervention program about breast cancer among women in a semi-urban area in alexandria, Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc, 84, 219-43.
- Ahuja S, Chakrabarti N (2010). To determine the level of knowledge regarding breast cancer and to increase awareness about breast cancer screening practices among a group of women in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India. Int J Public Health. Volume 1 Number 1. DOI: 10.5580/1b7c. https://doi.org/10.5580/1b7c
- Alam AA (2006). Knowledge of breast cancer and its risk and protective factors among women in Riyadh. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 26, 272-7. https://doi.org/10.5144/0256-4947.2006.272
- Anderson BO, Jakesz R (2008). Breast cancer issues in developing countries: an overview of the Breast Health Global Initiative. World J Surg, 32, 2578-85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-007-9454-z
- Bozgunchiev M, Moore AM, Eser S, et al (2009). Cancer epidemiology and control in north-Western and central Asia - past, present and future. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 17-32.
- Ferlay J, Héry C, Autier P, Sankaranarayanan R (2010). Global Burden of Breast Cancer. Breast Cancer Epidemiol, ?, 1-19.
- Haji-Mahmoodi M, Montazeri A, Jarvandi S, et al (2002). Breast self-examination: knowledge, attitudes, and practices among female health care workers in Tehran, Iran. Breast J, 8, 222-5. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1524-4741.2002.08406.x
- Hampton T (2008).Oncologists advice breast awareness over routine breast self -examination. JAMA, 300, 1748-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.300.15.1748
- Harirchi I, Karbakhsh M, Montazeri A, et al (2010). Decreasing trend of tumor size and downstaging in breast cancer in Iran: results of a 15-year study. Eur J Cancer Prev, 19,126. https://doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0b013e328333d0b3
- Harirchi I, Kolahdoozan S, Karbakhsh M, et al (2010). Twenty years of breast cancer in Iran: down staging without a formal screening program. Annals of Oncol, 22, 93-7.
- Jarvandi S, Montazeri A, Harirchi I, Kazemnejad A (2002). Beliefs and behaviours of Iranian teachers toward early detection of breast cancer and breast self-examination. Public Health, 116, 245-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ph.1900854
- Jones AR, Thompson CJ, Oster RA, et al (2003). Breast cancer knowledge, beliefs, and screening behaviors among lowincome, elderly black women. J Natl Med Assoc, 95, 791-7.
- Lahelma E, Martikainen P, Laaksonen M, et al (2004). Pathways between socioeconomic determinants of health. J Epidemiol Community Health, 58, 327-32. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2003.011148
- Michael N Okobia, Clareann H Bunker, Friday E Okonofua, Usifo Osime (2006). Knowledge attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer : A cross sectional Study. World J Surgical Oncol, 4, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7819-4-11
- Montazeri A, Haghighat S, Vahdani M, Jarvandi S, Harirchi I (1999). Evaluation of a national breast cancer information service: the Iranian experience. Support Care Cancer, 7, 154-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s005200050246
- Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Harirchi I, et al (2008). Breast cancer in Iran: need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods. Asia Pac Fam Med, 7, 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1447-056X-7-6
- Mousavi SM, Montazeri A, Mohagheghi MA, et al (2007). Breast cancer in Iran:an epidemiological review. Breast J, 13, 383-91. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4741.2007.00446.x
- Mousavi SM, Gouya MM, Ramazani R, et al (2009). Cancer incidence and mortality in Iran. Ann Oncol, 20, 556-63.
- Paul C, Barratt A, Redman S, Cockburn J, Lowe J (1999). Knowledge and perceptions about breast cancer incidence, fatality and risk among Australian women. Aust N Z J Public Health, 23, 396-400. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-842X.1999.tb01281.x
- Pöhls UG, Renner SP, Fasching PA, Lux MD, et al (2004). Awareness of breast cancer incidence and risk factors among healthy women. Eur J Cancer Prev, 13, 249-256. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.cej.0000136718.03089.a5
- Thornton H, Pillarisetti RR (2008). 'Breast awareness' and 'breast self examination' are not the same. What do these terms mean? Why are they confused? Eur J Cancer, 44, 2118-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2008.08.015
- Yavari P, Pourhoseingholi MA (2007). Socioeconomic factors association with knowledge and practice of breast self examination among Iranian women. Asain Pac J Cancer Prev, 8, 618.
- Yip CH (2009). Breast cancer in Asia. Methods Mol Biol, 471, 51-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-416-2_3
- The Results of a Breast Cancer Screening Camp at a District Level in Rural India vol.13, pp.12, 2012, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.12.6067
- Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Breast Self-Examination Practice among Iranian Women in Hamedan, Iran vol.15, pp.16, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.16.6531
- Awareness and Practices Regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer among Turkish Women in Gazientep vol.15, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1093
- Impact of a Breast Health Awareness Activity on the Knowledge Level of the Participants and its Association with Socio-Demographic Features vol.16, pp.14, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.14.5817
- Development and psychometric testing of a new instrument to measure factors influencing women’s breast cancer prevention behaviors (ASSISTS) vol.16, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-016-0318-2
- Relationship between Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Breast-Self Examination among Middle and High School Girls vol.23, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4094/chnr.2017.23.2.147