Evaluation of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus and its R426Q Polymorphism in Patients with Prostate Cancer in Kerman, Southeast of Iran

  • Published : 2012.08.31


A role for the xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer development has been postulated. To answer questions regarding the prevalence of XMRV in Iranian patients with prostate cancer and its association with the RNASEL R462Q polymorphism, we here investigated a series of cases in Kerman, in the Southeast of Iran, and sought to verify the association with the R462Q using Real Time PCR Method. Prostate tissue specimens of 200 patients with prostate cancer were genotyped for R462Q by real time polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination and were screened for XMRV proviral DNA by real time polymerase chain reaction specific for the envelope gene. Of 200 patients in this study 8 (4%) cases were positive for XMRV, the QQ allele being the most frequenct regarding the R426Q polymorphism while in negative patients it was the RQ allele. There was significant correlation between high pathological scores and XMRV positive samples. No significant relationship was found between age groups and XMRV results. XMRV was only found in patients with QQ and RQ alleles, not RR. XMRV is detectable in tumor prostate tissue from some patients with prostate cancer, independent of R462Q.


  1. Alvarez-Cubero MJ, Entrala C, Fernandez-Rosado F, Martinez- Gonzale LJ (2012). Predictive value in the analysis of RNASEL genotypes in relation to prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 15, 144-9.
  2. Arnold RS, Makarova NV, Osunkoya AO, et al (2010). XMRV infection in patients with prostate cancer: Novel serologic assay and correlation with PCR and FISH. Urology, 75, 755-8.
  3. Bjartell A S (2006). Re: Identification of a novel gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant. Eur Urology, 50, 613-8.
  4. Casey G, Neville P, Plummer S, Xiang Y (2002). RNASEL Arg462Gln variant is implicated in up to 13% of prostate cancer cases. Nat Genet, 32, 581-3.
  5. Chen H, Griffin A R, Wu Y Q, Tomsho L P (2003). RNASEL mutations in hereditary prostate cancer. J Med Genet, 40, 21-5.
  6. D'Arcy F, Foley R, Perry A, et al (2008). No evidence of XMRV in Irish prostate cancer patients with the R462Q mutation. Eur Urology Supplements, 7, 271-3.
  7. Ferris-i-Tortajada J, Berbel-Tornero O, Garcia-i-Castell J, et al (2011). Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer. Actas Urologicas Espanolas, 35, 289-95.
  8. Garson JA, Kellam P, Towers GJ (2011). Analysis of XMRV integration sites from human prostate cancer tissues suggests PCR contamination rather than genuine human infection. Retrovirology, 8, 306-9.
  9. Hong P, Li J (2012). Lack of evidence for a role of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and/or chronic fatigue syndrome. Virus Res, 167, 1-7.
  10. Hosseini M, SeyedAlinaghi S, Mahmoudi M, McFarland W (2010). A case-control study of risk factors for prostate cancer in Iran. Acta Med Iran, 48, 61-6.
  11. Huihua L, Bee CT (2006). RNASEL gene polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Clin Cancer Res, 18, 5713-8.
  12. Klein E, Silverman R (2010). Charactrization of XMRV in prostate cancer. J Urology, 183, 265-9.
  13. Maric R, Pedersen FS, Kjeldbjerg A, et al (2010). Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in Danish patients with multiple sclerosis. J Clinical Virol, 49, 227-9.
  14. Nakazato H, Suzuki K, Matsui H, et al (2003). Role of genetic polymorphisms of the RNASEL gene on familial prostate cancer risk in a Japanese population. BJC, 89, 691-6.
  15. Quaglia A, Parodi S, Grosclaude P, et al (2003). Differences in the epidemic rise and decrease of prostate cancer among geographical areas in Southern Europe. an analysis of differential trends in incidence and mortality in France, Italy and Spain. Eur J Cancer, 39, 654-65.
  16. Robinson MJ, Erlwein O, McClure MO (2011). Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) does not cause chronic fatigue. Trends in Microbiology, 19, 525-9.
  17. Rokman A, Pasi A, Koivisto M, Mika P (2001). Genetic changes in familial prostate cancer by comparative genomic hybridization. The Prostate, 46, 233-9.<233::AID-PROS1028>3.0.CO;2-W
  18. Sadjadi A, Nooraie M, Ghorbani A, Alimohammadian M (2007). The incidence of prostate cancer in Iran: results of a population-based cancer registry. Arch Iran Med, 10, 481-5.
  19. Sakuma R, Sakuma T, Ohmine S, et al (2010). Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus is susceptible to AZT. Virology, 397, 1-6.
  20. Summers K, Crespi B (2008). Molecular evolution of the prostate cancer susceptibility locus RNASEL: Evidence for positive selection. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 8, 297-9.
  21. Trottier G, Fleshner NE (2010). XMRV Is Present in Malignant Prostate Epithelium and Is Associated With Prostate Cancer, Especially High-grade Tumors. Eur Urol, 57, 358-61.
  22. Urisman A, Molinaro RJ, Fischer N, et al (2006). Identification of a Novel Gammaretrovirus in Prostate Tumors of Patients Homozygous for R462Q RNASEL Variant. PLoS Pathog, 2, 25-7.
  23. Wainberg, Mark A, Jeang KT (2011). XMRV as a Human Pathogen? Cell Host & Amp. Microbe, 9, 260-2.

Cited by

  1. No Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Prostate Cancer in Sanandaj, West of Iran vol.14, pp.11, 2013,