Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Child Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (CROPS) and the Parent Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (PROPS)

한국판 아동용 외상 후 증상 보고와 부모용 외상 후 증상 보고에 대한 신뢰도 및 타당도 연구

Lee, Kwang-Min;Jeong, Sung-Hoon;Lee, Won-Kee;Chung, Un-Sun

  • Received : 2011.05.31
  • Accepted : 2011.07.25
  • Published : 2011.09.30


Objectives: The Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (CROPS) and the Parent Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (PROPS) are screening measures for post-traumatic symptoms in children. The present study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean versions of the CROPS and the PROPS. Methods: The Korean versions of the CROPS and the PROPS were administered to a sample of 304 children aged 6 to 15 years old. The internal reliability, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, predictive validity and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results: The reliability of the CROPS and the PROPS was shown to have excellent internal consistency and test-retest correlation. The single factor structure of the PROPS was good and that of the CROPS was borderline acceptable according to confirmatory factor analysis. Other validity measures such as the predictive validity and concurrent validity were also shown to be satisfactory. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the Korean versions of the CROPS and the PROPS were reliable measures with satisfactory psychometric qualities. Because it takes less than 5 minutes to fill out the CROPS and the PROPS, respectively they can be quick and easy screening scales for assessing post-traumatic symptoms in Korean children.


CROPS;PROPS;Child;Posttraumatic Symptoms;PTSD;Screening;Reliability;Validity


  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press;1994.
  2. Terr L. Childhood traumas: An outline and overview. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 1991;19:163-179.
  3. Jeong MJ. Concerning that Yeonpyeongdo residents have gotten psychic trauma. Yonhap News Agency 2010 Nov 26; Available from URL:
  4. Sim L, Friedrich WN, Davies WH, Trentham B, Lengua L, Pithers W. The Child Behavior Checklist as an indicator of posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociation in normative, psychiatric, and sexually abused children. J Trauma Stress 2005;18:697-705.
  5. Green AH. Dimension of psychological trauma in abused children. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1983;22:231-237.
  6. Ku JI, Kim TH, Eun HJ, Choi MR, Lee SM, Cho SJ, et al. A study of reliability and validity on the Korean version of clinician administered PTSD scale for children and adolescents. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 2006;45:571-577.
  7. Shin JU, Jeong SH, Chung US. The Korean version of the adolescent dissociative experience scale: psychometric properties and the connection to trauma among Korean adolescents. Psychiatry Investig 2009;6:163-172.
  8. Son SY, Kim TK, Shin YJ. The effectiveness of Traumatic Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC): comparisons of sexually abused children and nonabused normal children. J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;18:49-57.
  9. Strand VC, Sarmiento TL, Pasquale LE. Assessment and screening tools for trauma in children and adolescents: a review. Trauma Violence Abuse 2005;6:55-78.
  10. Greenwald R, Rubin A. Assessment of Posttraumatic Symptoms in Children: Development and Preliminary Validation of Parent and Child Scales. Res Soc Work Pract 1999;9:61-75.
  11. Sung TJ. Reliability and validity. Seoul: Hakjisa;2002.
  12. Achenbach TM, Edelbrock GS. Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. Burlington (VT): T.M. Achenbach; 1983.
  13. Oh K, Ha E, Lee H, Hong K. K-CBCL, Korean version of child adolescent behavior checklist. Seoul: Chung Ang Aptitude Publishing; 1997.
  14. Nunnally J, Bernstein I. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw Hill;1994.
  15. Linacre JM. Winsteps Rasch Software. 3.66. Chicago: Winsteps; 2008.
  16. Wright B, Linacre J. Reasonable mean-square fit values. Rasch Meas Trans 1994;8:370.
  17. Wolfe EW, Smith EV. Instrument development tools and activities for measure validation using Rasch models: part II-validation activities. Maple Grove: JAM Press;2007. p.243-290.
  18. Anastasi A, Urbina S. Psychological testing. Ipper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice-Hall;1997.
  19. Cole DA. Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. J Consult Clin Psychol 1987;55:584-594.
  20. Browne MW, Cudeck R. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In: Bollen KA, Long JS, editors. Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park (CF): Sage;1993. p.136-162.
  21. Yule W, Williams RM. Post-trumatic stress reaction in children. J Trauma Stress 1990;3:279-295.
  22. Lee HJ, Lee KG, Kim EJ, Pai KS, Lee SD. An epidemiological study on enuresis in children of two elementary schools in Suwon. Korean J Pediatr 2008;51:518-522.
  23. Joseph FH, Rolph EA, Ronald LT, William CB. Multivariate data analysis with reading. 4th ed. Englewood (NJ): Prentice Hall;1995.
  24. Dehon C, Scheeringa MS. Screening for preschool posttraumatic stress disorder with the Child Behavior Checklist. J Pediatr Psychol 2006;31:431-435.
  25. Loeber R, Green SM, Lahey BB. Mental health professionals' perception of the utility of children, mothers, and teachers as informants on childhood psychopathology. J Clin Child Psychol 1990;19: 136-143.
  26. Kolko DJ, Kazdin AE. Emotional/behavioral problems in clinic and nonclinic children: correspondence among child, parent and teacher reports. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1993;34:991-1006.
  27. Lanktree CB, Gilbert AM, Briere J, Taylor N, Chen K, Maida CA, et al. Multi-informant assessment of maltreated children: convergent and discriminant validity of the TSCC and TSCYC. Child Abuse Negl 2008;32:621-625.
  28. Taylor GJ, Bagby RM, Parker JD. The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. IV. Reliability and factorial validity in different languages and cultures. J Psychosom Res 2003;55:277-283.
  29. Cho MJ, Hahm BJ, Kim JK, Park KK, Chung EK, Suh TW, et al. Korean epidemiologic catchment area (KECA) study for psychiatric disorders: prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 2004;43:470-480.
  30. Greenwald R, Satin MS, Azubuike AAA, Borgen R, Rubin A. Trauma- informed multi-component treatment for juvenile delinquents: Preliminary findings. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies; 2001; New Orleans, LA;2001.

Cited by

  1. Factors associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents exposed to the Sewol ferry disaster in Korea vol.256, 2017,
  2. Assessment Tools for Psychological Trauma in Children and Adolescent after a Disaster vol.54, pp.3, 2015,
  3. The Korean Version of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist: Psychometric Properties in Korean School-aged Children vol.30, pp.8, 2015,
  4. Late Effects, Social Adjustment, and Quality of Life in Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Leukemia vol.44, pp.1, 2014,
  5. Factors Associated with Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Students Who Survived 20 Months after the Sewol Ferry Disaster in Korea vol.33, pp.11, 2018,
  6. Five Months Follow-up Study of School-based Crisis Intervention for Korean High School Students Who Experienced a Peer Suicide vol.33, pp.28, 2018,
  7. A Retrospective and Prospective Follow-up Study of Psychological Distress in the Danwon High School Survivors of the Sewol Ferry Disaster vol.15, pp.3, 2018,
  8. Factors Associated with Complicated Grief in Students Who Survived the Sewol Ferry Disaster in South Korea vol.15, pp.3, 2018,