Optimization of Preparation Conditions and Analysis of Food Components for Chicken Head Soup Base

닭머리 육수 제조 조건의 최적화 및 성분 분석

  • Choi, Sung-Eun (Department of Family, Nutrition and Exercise Sciences,Queens College)
  • Received : 2011.07.27
  • Accepted : 2011.10.05
  • Published : 2011.10.30


Optimum preparation conditions for chicken head soup base were determined in terms of the effects of amount of chicken head and cooking time using response surface methodology based on sensory properties. Sensory properties that were evaluated were yellowness, turbidity, bloody, chicken-brothy, organ meat-like, and fat-like flavor. All values of sensory characteristics increased remarkably with an increase in the amount of chicken head and cooking time. The optimum amount of chicken head and cooking time were determined to be 1800 g and 150 minutes, respectively. Chicken head soup base had less fat, free amino acids, nucleotides, and its derivatives, but had significantly more cholesterol, sodium, and iron than whole chicken soup base. In flavor compound analysis, the amount of hexanal of the chicken head soup base, which is related to fat rancidity flavor, was 11-fold higher than that of the whole chicken soup base.


  1. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C. USA
  2. Bae GK, Byun GI, Choi SK. 2007. Quality characteristics of fish crab and red-crab stock prepared by high pressure extract method. Korean J. Culinary Research, 13(4):293-304
  3. Cambero MI, Seuss I, Honikel KO. 1992. Flavor compounds of beef broth as affected by cooking temperature, J. Food Science, 57(6):1285-1290
  4. Cha SH, Cho JH, Chung KS, Chang PS, Yi YH. 1995. Proximate composition and microbial content change of broiler waste silage by mixing with wheat bran and oven-drying. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 27:63-67
  5. Chen TC, Hill JE, Haynes RL. 1976. Quality characteristics of raw and treated effluents from Mississippi poultry processing plants. Poultry Sci. 55:2390-2395
  6. Chen TC, Hill JE, Haynes RL. 1982. Characteristics of waste loads of poultry processing wastes. Mississippi Agricultural & Forestry Experiment Station Research Report 7:1-3
  7. Cho EZ. 1984. Changes in fatty acid and cholesterol composition of Korean styled beef broths (Gom-Guk) during cooking. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 13(4):363-371
  8. Choi SK, Jang HR, Rha YA. 2008. The analysis of physicochemical and sensory characteristicsin brown stock-comparison of traditional method and high-pressure extracted method. Korean J. Culinary Research, 14(3):196-298
  9. Hicks, CR 1982. Fundamental concepts in the design of experiment, 3rd ed. Holt, Reinhart, and Winston, New York, USA, pp 328-340
  10. Hwang HS. 1969. Encyclopedia of Korean food and cooking. Samjungdang, Seoul, Korea, pp 507-508
  11. Kang TG, Choi SK, Yoon HH. 2009. A study on the quality characteristics of fish stock by additions of shite wine. Korean J. Culinary Research, 15(3):213-224
  12. Kim DH. 1990. Food chemistry. Tamgudang, Seoul, Korea, pp 66-215
  13. Kim DH. 1994. Rancidity of edible fat, Korea University Press, Seoul, Korea, pp 282-366
  14. Kim DS. 2006. Optimization of cooking conditions of brown stock and demi-glace sauce. Ph.D. dissertation. Yeungnam University, 10, 37-38, 106-111
  15. Kim DS, Kim JS, Choi SK. 2008. The mineral contents of chicken stock according to salt contents using a highpressure extraction cooking. Korean J. Culinary Research, 14(4):283-291
  16. Kim DS, Kim JS, Seong TJ. 2010. Amino acid properties and sensory characteristics of chicken stock by different salt contents. Korean J. Culinary Research, 16(4):274-285
  17. Krishnamoorthy RV, Venkataramiah A, Lakshmi GJ, Biesiot P. 1979. Effects of cooking and of frozen storage on the cholesterolcontent of selected shell fish. J. Food Science., 44, 314-315 (1979)
  18. Lawrie RA. 1974. Meat science, 2nd ed., Pergamon, Oxford, UK, pp 77-85
  19. Lee CB. 1996. Study on the extraction conditions for chicken bone extract by hot water. Ph. D. dissertation, Korea University. pp 37-48
  20. Lee EH, Koo JG, Ahn CB, Cha YJ. 1984. A rapid method for determination of ATP and its related compounds in dried fish and shellfish products using HPLC. Bull. Korean Fish Soc. 17(5):368-372
  21. Lee JM, Kim KO, Choi SE. 2000. Effect of soaking and blanching chicken-head in the preparation of chickenhead broth. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 32(3):674-680
  22. Lee JM, Shin KS, Choi SE. 1999. A study on the present situation of utilization of broth materials for the development of broth product. Korean J. Dietary Culture, 14(1):57-65
  23. Lee SR, Shin HS. 1991. Food Chemistry, Shinkwang Press Co., Seoul, Korea, p 75
  24. Lee YK, Chun HJ, Lee HG. 1992. A bibliographical study on the Goumguk in Korea. J. Kor. Soc. Diet. Culture 7(4):339-364
  25. Lim HS, Ahn MS, Yoon SS. 1985. A research on the changes in components of Sulnong soup stock with heating times. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 1(1):8-17
  26. Macrae R. 1988. HPLC in food analysis. Academic press, New York, USA, p 444
  27. Mickellberry WC, Rogler JC. Sadelmann WJ. Biesiot P. 1966. The influence of dietary fat and environmental temperature upon chick growth and carcass composition. Poultry Science, 45(2):313-321
  28. Moon SJ, Sohn KH. 1994. Principles of food science and cooking, Suhaksa, Seoul, Korea, p 280
  29. Park DY, Lee YS. 1982. An experiment in extracting efficient nutrients from Sagol bone stock. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 11(3):47-52
  30. Park HO, Lee HJ. 1995. A study on the free amino acid and mineralsof chicken bone extracts by boiling time. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 11(3):244-248
  31. Pyun JW, Hwang IK. 1987. Study on the characteristics of the chemical seasoning (MSG) mixed with the various contents of nucleotides. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 3(1):71-77
  32. Rural development administration. 1991. Food composition table, 5th ed., National institute of agricultural science and technology, Suwon, Korea
  33. Ryu KL & Kim TH. 1992. The historical study of beef cooking I., cookery of soup based on beef. J. Korean Soc. Diet Culture. 7(3):223-226
  34. Shahidi F (ed.). 1998. Flavor of meat and meat products. Blakie Academic & Professional, Glasgow, USA, pp 52-70
  35. Stone H, Sidel JL. 2004. Sensory Evaluation Practices. 3rd ed. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, USA. pp 202-242
  36. Sul MY, Jang MS. 1990. A study on mineral contents in Sagol bone stock. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 6(4):21-26
  37. Woo HM, Choi SK. 2010. The quality characteristics of chicken stock containing various amounts of tomato. Korean J. Culinary Research, 16(5):287-298
  38. Younathan MT, Watts BM. 1960. Oxidaton of tissue lipids in cooked pork. Food Research, 25:538-543