- Volume 5 Issue 4
Weight reduction behavior is common among adolescent girls. The present study examined the status of weight reduction behavior and factors affecting the behavioral intention of weight reduction using the Health Belief Model (HBM) for female middle school students by weight category. Survey data was collected from three girl's middle schools in Gyeongju, Korea. A total of 299 female middle school students participated in this study. The questionnaire had questions about general characteristics, weight reduction behavior, and variables of HBM (perceived threat, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, and behavioral intention of weight reduction). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to analyze the variables. A higher percentage of students in the overweight group attempted weight reduction than those in the underweight and the normal weight groups (P < 0.001). Among students who had attempted weight reduction, 73% tried diet therapy, while 78% tried exercise. Students in the normal and overweight groups showed significantly higher threat (P < 0.01) and cues to action (P < 0.001) than those in the underweight group. As for perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, there were no significant differences among weight groups. Students in the overweight group showed the strongest intention of weight reduction and there were significant differences among the three weight groups (P < 0.001). Perceive threat (P < 0.01), cues to action (P < 0.001), and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were significantly associated to behavioral intention of weight reduction for all respondents. For the underweight group, perceived threat (P < 0.05) and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were the significant variables. For the overweight group, cue to action was the significant variable (P < 0.05).
Health Belief Model;weight reduction;female middle school students
- Choi IS, Ro HK. A comparison study on middle school students of Gwangju and Jeonnam in terms of dietary behavior, body perception and weight control concerns according to BMI. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2010;39:383-91. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.3.383
- Kim JE, Min HS. Weight-related perceptions, practices and eating behaviors of middle school students: associations with BMI. Korean J Community Nutr 2008;13:13-23.
- Kang HW, Lee SS. Obesity and weight control prevalence of middle school students in Seoul, Gyeonggi area. Korean J Nutr 2006;39:674-83.
- Lee JS, Ha BJ. A study of the dietary attitude, dietary selfefficacy and nutrient intake among middle school students with different obesity indices in Gyeong-Nam. Korean J Community Nutr 2003;8:171-80.
- Al Sabbah H, Vereecken C, Abdeen Z, Kelly C, Ojala K, Nemeth A, Ahluwalia N, Maes L. Weight control behaviors among overweight, normal weight and underweight adolescents in Palestine: findings from the national study of Palestinian schoolchildren (HBSC-WBG2004). Int J Eat Disord 2010;43:326-36.
- Kelly C, Molcho M, Nic Gabhainn S. Patterns in weight reduction behaviour by weight status in schoolchildren. Public Health Nutr 2009;13:1229-36.
- Ojala K, Vereecken C, Välimaa R, Currie C, Villberg J, Tynjälä J, Kannas L. Attempts to lose weight among overweight and non-overweight adolescents: a cross-national survey. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2007;4:50. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-4-50
- Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan PJ, Perry CL, Irving LM. Weight-related concerns and behaviors among overweight and nonoverweight adolescents: implications for preventing weightrelated disorders. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002;156:171-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.156.2.171
- Baker JL, Olsen LW, Sorensen TI. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2329-37. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa072515
- Neovius M, Sundström J, Rasmussen F. Combined effects of overweight and smoking in late adolescence on subsequent mortality: nationwide cohort study. BMJ 2009;338:b496. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b496
- Fonseca H, Gaspar de Matos M. Perception of overweight and obesity among Portuguese adolescents: an overview of associated factors. Eur J Public Health 2005;15:323-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cki071
- Mallick MJ. Health hazards of obesity and weight control in children: a review of the literature. Am J Public Health 1983;73:78-82. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.73.1.78
- Pesa J. Psychosocial factors associated with dieting behaviors among female adolescents. J Sch Health 1999;69:196-201. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1999.tb06385.x
- Spear BA. Does dieting increase the risk for obesity and eating disorders? J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106:523-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2006.01.013
- Brener ND, Eaton DK, Lowry R, McManus T. The association between weight perception and BMI among high school students. Obes Res 2004;12:1866-74. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2004.232
- Park HS. A study on body image and influences on the intention to reduce food intake of female high school students [master's thesis]. Gyeongju: Dongguk University; 1998.
- Ryu HK. Factors affecting the weight control intention of the female adolescent by body size-in Daegu area. Korean J Community Living Sci 2005;16:83-93.
- Neumark-Sztainer D, Paxton SJ, Hannan PJ, Haines J, Story M. Does body satisfaction matter? Five-year longitudinal associations between body satisfaction and health behaviors in adolescent females and males. J Adolesc Health 2006;39:244-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.12.001
- Alwan H, Viswanathan B, Paccaud F, Bovet P. Is accurate perception of body image associated with appropriate weightcontrol behavior among adolescents of the Seychelles. J Obes 2011;2011:817242.
- Levine MP, Smolak L, Hayden H. The relation of sociocultural factors to eating attitudes and behaviors among middle school girls. J Early Adolesc 1994;14:471-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431694014004004
- Eisenberg ME, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Perry C. The role of social norms and friends' influences on unhealthy weightcontrol behaviors among adolescent girls. Soc Sci Med 2005;60:1165-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.06.055
- Hutchinson DM, Rapee RM. Do friends share similar body image and eating problems? The role of social networks and peer influences in early adolescence. Behav Res Ther 2007;45:1557-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.11.007
- Leahey TM, LaRose JG, Fava JL, Wing RR. Social influences are associated with BMI and weight loss intentions in young adults. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011;19:1157-62. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2010.301
- Kang YJ, Jin KN, Lee HR. Factors influencing weight control intention of obese adolescents. J Korean Soc Study Obes 1998;7:142-56.
- Lee CM. The effect of health belief and self-efficiency on weight-control behavior and intention to obesity control among elementary schoolers [master's thesis]. Daegu: Catholic University of Daegu; 2004.
- O'Connell JK, Price JH, Roberts SM, Jurs SG, McKinley R. Utilizing the Health Belief Model to predict dieting and exercising behavior of obese and nonobese adolescents. Health Educ Q 1985;12:343-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019818501200401
- Nejad LM, Wertheim EH, Greenwood KM. Comparison of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior in the prediction of dieting and fasting behavior. E-Journal of Applied Psychology: Social Section 2005;1:63-74. https://doi.org/10.7790/ejap.v1i1.10
- Garcia K, Mann T. From 'I wish' to 'I will': Social-cognitive predictors of behavioral intentions. J Health Psychol 2003;8:347-60.
- McKinley CJ. Investigating the influence of threat appraisals and social support on healthy eating behavior and drive for thinness. Health Commun 2009;24:735-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410230903264303
- Moore SE, Harris C, Wimberly Y. Perception of weight and threat to health. J Natl Med Assoc 2010;102:119-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0027-9684(15)30499-5
- Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology [Internet]. Seoul: '06-'08 Results of school health examination; [cited August 4]. Available from: http://www.korea.kr/expdoc/viewDocument.ref?id=25401.
- Kim MH. A study on the relations of health promoting daily life style and self-efficiency about boys' obesity [master's thesis]. Seoul: Chung-Ang University; 2000.
- Kang YJ. Factors influencing weight control behavior and intention of obese children and adolescents [Ph.D. thesis]. Seoul: Yonsei University; 1997.
- Lee JI. A study on obese children's self-efficiency and health promotion behavior [Ph.D. thesis]. Kyongbuk; Kyungsan University; 2001.
- Kim JY, Son SJ, Lee JE, Kim JH, Jung IK. The effects of body image satisfaction on obesity stress, weight control attitudes, and eating disorders among female junior high school students. J Korean Home Econ Assoc 2009;47:49-59.
- Kim BR, Kim YS. Dietary behaviors, body satisfaction and factors affecting the weight control interest according to gender of middle school students in Wonju area. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2010;39:1295-304. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.9.1295
- Park HA, Rhie SG, Won HR. Comparative study on dietary behavior, nutrition knowledge and cognition of body image, weight control and nutrition education of middle school students according to gender. Korean J Community Living Sci 2007;18:481-91.
- Ryu HK, Yoon JS, Park DY. A study of factors influencing weight control behavior in adolescent females. Korean J Community Nutr 1999;4:561-7.
- Ryu HK, Park JA. Perception of body image, eating disorder, eating behaviors and subjective health status of female high school and college students in Daegu area. Korean J Community Living Sci 2002;13:69-80.
- Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall M, Eisenberg ME, Story M, Hannan PJ. Overweight status and weight control behaviors in adolescents: Longitudinal and secular trends from 1999 to 2004. Prev Med 2006;43:52-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.03.014
- Boyd EM, Reynolds JR, Tillman KH, Martin PY. Adolescent girls' race/ethnic status, identities, and drive for thinness. Soc Sci Res 2011;40:667-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2010.11.003
- Kim NY, Jung IS, Kim JS. A comparative study on the selfefficacy and health promoting behavior between obese and normal weight middle school students. J Korean Community Nurs 2001;12:828-37.
- Relationships between Eating Behavior, Dietary Self-Efficacy, and Nutrition Knowledge of Elementary School Students by Food Service Type in Gangwon Province vol.41, pp.5, 2012, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.5.638
- Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Healthy Lifestyles vol.8, pp.1, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827613487496
- Lifestyle Interventions and Weight Control of Adolescents With Abdominal Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial Based on Health Belief Model vol.19, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.30638
- Maternal Weight Control Behaviors for Preschoolers Related to Children’s Gender pp.1573-2843, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0902-6
Supported by : Dongguk University