Effects of Fermented Potato Pulp on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Carcass Traits and Plasma Parameters of Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Li, P.F. (Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Xue, L.F. (Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhang, R.F. (Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Piao, Xiangshu (Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zeng, Z.K. (Ministry of Agriculture Feed Industry Centre, State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhan, J.S. (Daqing Essence Starch Co., Ltd.)
  • Received : 2011.06.08
  • Accepted : 2011.07.20
  • Published : 2011.10.01


A total of 629 Duroc${\times}$Landrace${\times}$Large White crossbred pigs were utilized in three experiments (Exp. 1, 222 pigs weighing $25.6{\pm}2.0\;kg$ BW; Exp. 2, 216 pigs weighing 5$6.2{\pm}4.3\;kg$ BW; Exp. 3, 191 pigs weighing $86.4{\pm}4.6\;kg$ BW) conducted to determine the effects of fermented potato pulp on performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits and plasma parameters in growingfinishing pigs. Each experiment lasted 28 d. The pigs were assigned to one of two corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 0 or 5% fermented potato pulp. The inclusion of fermented potato pulp increased weight gain (p<0.05) in experiments 1 and 2 and increased feed intake (p<0.05) in experiment 2. Feed conversion was improved (p<0.05) in experiment 2 and showed a tendency to improve (p<0.10) in experiments 1 and 3 when pigs were fed fermented potato pulp. Fermented potato pulp increased (p<0.05) dry matter digestibility in experiments 1 and 3 and energy digestibility in experiment 2. Feeding fermented potato pulp decreased plasma urea nitrogen (p<0.05) and alanine aminotransferase (p<0.05) in experiments 1 and 2, while plasma aspartate aminotransferase was decreased (p<0.05) in experiment 3. Dietary fermented potato pulp did not affect the carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Feeding fermented potato pulp reduced (p<0.05) fecal ammonia concentration in all three experiments. In conclusion, feeding growing-finishing pigs diets containing 5% fermented potato pulp improved weight gain and feed conversion without any detrimental effects on carcass traits. The improvements in pig performance appeared to be mediated by improvements in nutrient digestibility.


  1. AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., Arlington, VA.
  2. Awati, A., B. A. Williams, M. W. Bosch, W. J. Gerrits and M. W. Verstegen. 2006. Effect of inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates in the diet on fermentation end-product profile in feces of weanling piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2133-2140.
  3. Beaulieu, A. D., N. H. Williams and J. F. Patience. 2009. Response to dietary digestible energy concentration in growing pigs fed cereal grain-based diets. J. Anim. Sci. 87:965-976.
  4. Beckett, G. J., G. R. Foster, A. J. Hussey, D. B. Oliveira, J. W. Donovan, L. F. Prescott and A. T. Proudfoot. 1989. Plasma glutathione s-transferase and protein are more sensitive than alanine aminotransferase as markers of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver damage. Clin. Chem. 35:2186-2189.
  5. Canibe, N. and B. B. Jensen. 2003. Fermented and nonfermented liquid feed to growing pigs: Effect on aspects of gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 2019-2031.
  6. Canibe, N., H. Miettinen and B. B. Jensen. 2008. Effect of adding lactobacillus plantarum or a formic acid containing product to fermented liquid feed on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance of piglets. Livest. Sci. 144:251-262.
  7. Chiang, G., W. Q. Lu, X. S. Piao, J. K. Hu, L. M. Gong and P. A. Thacker. 2010. Effects of feeding solid-state fermented rapeseed meal on performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23(2):263-271.
  8. Cho, J. H. and I. H. Kim. 2011. Effects of fermented fish meal on nitrogen balance and apparent total tract and ileal amino acid digestibility in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 10:1455-1459.
  9. Cho, J. H., B. J. Min, Y. J. Chen, J. S. Yoo, Q. Wang, J. D. Kim and I. H. Kim. 2007. Evaluation of fermented soy protein to replace soybean meal in weaned pigs: Growth performance, blood urea nitrogen and total protein concentrations in serum and nutrient digestibility. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1874-1879.
  10. Chung, Y. C., C. Huang and C. Tseng. 1996. Reduction of $H_2S/NH_3$ production from pig feces by controlling environmental conditions. J. Environ. Sci. Heal. A. 31:139-151.
  11. Dung, N. N. X., L. H. Manh and B. Ogle. 2005. Effects of fermented liquid feeds on the performance, digestibility, nitrogen retention and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) of growing-finishing pigs. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 17:102.
  12. Eggum, B. O. 1970. Blood urea measurement as a technique for assessing protein quality. Br. J. Nutr. 24:983-988.
  13. Fan, M. Z. and W. C. Sauer. 2002. Determination of true ileal amino acid digestibility and the endogenous amino acid outputs associated with barley samples for growing-finishing pigs by the regression analysis technique. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1593-1605.
  14. Ganapathy, V. and F. H. Leibach. 1999. Transport across intestinal. Epithelium. In: Textbook of Gastroenterology, Yamada, T. (Ed.). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp. 456-467.
  15. Hong, T. T. T. and J. E. Lindberg. 2007. Effect of cooking and fermentation of a pig diet on gut environment and digestibility in growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 109:135-137.
  16. Hu, J. K., W. Q. Lu, C. L. Wang, R. H. Zhu and J. Y. Qiao. 2008. Characteristics of solid-state fermented feed and its effects on performance and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:1635-1641.
  17. Kim, Y. C. 2004. Evaluation of availability for fermented soybean meal in weanling pigs. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Animal Resources and Science, Dankook University, Seoul, Korea.
  18. Kim, Y. G., J. D. Lohakare, J. H. Yun, S. Heo and B. J. Chae. 2007. Effect of feeding levels of microbial fermented soy protein on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:399-404.
  19. Kim, Y. Y. and D. C. Mahan. 2001. Comparative effects of high dietary levels of organic and inorganic selenium on selenium toxicity of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79:942-948.
  20. Lyberg, K., T. Lundh, C. Pedersen and J. E. Lindberg. 2006. Influence of soaking, fermentation and phytase supplementation on nutrient digestibility in pigs offered a grower diet based on wheat and barley. Anim. Sci. 82:853-858.
  21. Mayer, F. 1998. Potato pulp: Properties, physical modification and applications. Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 59:231-235.
  22. Mayer, F. and J. O. Hillebrandt. 1997. Potato pulp: Microbiological characterization, physical modification, and application of this agricultural waste product. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 48:435-440.
  23. Miller, E. L. 1967. Determination of the tryptophan content of feeding stuffs with particular reference to cereals. J. Sci. Food Agric. 18:381-386.
  24. Min, B. J., J. W. Hong, O. S. Kwon, W. B. Lee, Y. C. Kim, W. T. Cho and I. H. Kim. 2004. The effect of feeding processed soy protein on the growth performance and apparent ileal digestibility in weanling pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1271-1276.
  25. Ministry of Agriculture. 2004. Feeding standards of swine. China Agriculture Press, Beijing, China.
  26. Missotten, J. A. M., J. Michiels, W. Willems, A. Ovyn, S. De Smet and N. A. Dierick. 2010. Effect of fermented liquid feed on morpho-histological parameters in the piglet gut. Livest. Sci. 134:155-157.
  27. National Bureau Statistics of China. 2010. China statistical yearbook. China Statistics Press, Beijing.
  28. Nelson, M. L. 2010. Utilization and application of wet potato processing co-products for finishing cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 88:E133-E142.
  29. NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. 10th ed. Nat. Acad. Press, W., DC.
  30. Pedersen, C. and J. E. Lindberg. 2003. Effect of fermentation in a liquid diet on nitrogen metabolism in growing pigs. EAAP Publication.109:641-644.
  31. Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley and D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology. William C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA, pp. 935.
  32. Radunz, A. E., G. P. Lardy, M. L. Bauer, M. J. Marchello, E. R. Loe and P. T. Berg. 2003. Influence of steam-peeled potato-processing waste inclusion level in beef finishing diets: Effects on digestion, feedlot performance, and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2675-2685.
  33. Rijnen, M. M., M. W. Verstegen, M. J. Heetkamp, J. Haaksma and J. W. Schrama. 2001. Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on energy metabolism in group-housed sows. J. Anim. Sci. 79:148-154.
  34. SAS. 1999. SAS user's guide: Statistics (Version 8.01). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  35. Scholten, R. H. J., C. M. C. van der Peet-Schwering, M. W. A. Verstegen, L. A. den Hartog, J. W. Schrama and P. C. Vesseur. 1999. Fermented co-products and fermented compound diets for pigs: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 82:1-9.
  36. Scipioni, R. and G. Martelli. 2001. Consequences of the use of ensiled sugar beet-pulp in the diet of heavy pigs on performances, carcass characteristics and nitrogen balance: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 90:81-91.
  37. Szasz, J. I., C. W. Hunt, O. A. Turgeon, Jr., P. A. Szasz and K. A. Johnson. 2005. Effects of pasteurization of potato slurry byproduct fed in corn-or barley-based beef finishing diets. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2806-2014.
  38. Urlings, H. A., A. J. Mul, A. T. van't Klooster, P. G. Bijker, J. G. van Logtestijn and L. G. van Gils. 1993. Microbial and nutritional aspects of feeding fermented feed (poultry byproducts) to pigs. Vet. Q. 15:146-151.
  39. Wang, Y., J. H. Cho, Y. J. Chen, J. S. Yoo, Y. Huang, H. J. Kim and I. H. Kim. 2009. The effect of probiotic BioPlus $2B^{\circledR}$ on growth performance, dry matter and nitrogen digestibility and slurry noxious gas emission in growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 120:35-42.
  40. Xue, L. F., P. F. Li, R. F. Zhang, X. S. Piao, R. Han, D. Wang and Z. J. Zhan. 2011. Use of fermented potato pulp in diets fed to lactating sows. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 10:2032-2037.
  41. Zahn, J. A., J. L. Hatfield, Y. S. Do, A. A. Dispirito, D. A. Laird and R. L. Pfeiffer. 1997. Characterization of volatile organic emissions and wastes from a swine production facility. J. Environ. Qual. 26:1687-1696.