DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Influence of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Combination with Flaxseed Oil or Fish Oil on Saturated Fatty Acid and n-3 to n-6 Fatty Acid Ratio in Broiler Chicken Meat

  • Shin, D. ;
  • Kakani, G. ;
  • Karimi, A. ;
  • Cho, Y.M. ;
  • Kim, S.W. ;
  • Ko, Y.G. ;
  • Shim, K.S. ;
  • Park, Jae-Hong
  • Received : 2011.04.19
  • Accepted : 2011.06.29
  • Published : 2011.09.01

Abstract

This study examined the effect of CLA, flaxseed oil and fish oil and their combination forms on crude fat of liver and fatty acid profiles of liver, breast and thigh meat in broiler chicks. A total of 72, 1-day-old Cobb broilers were assigned to 6 groups, and fed an experimental diet supplemented with 5 different fat sources; conjugated linoleic acid (2% CLA), flaxseed oil (2% FXO), fish oil (2% FHO), CLA and flaxseed oil combination (1:1; 2% CXO), and CLA and fish oil combination (1:1; 2% CHO). Eight birds per treatment were processed, and liver, breast and thigh samples were investigated at 21 d of age. As a result of this study, most fatty acids of liver, breast and thigh meat were influenced by fat sources supplemented in the diet (p<0.05). CLA addition resulted in an increase of crude fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) content but a concomitant decrease in n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio was observed in liver (p<0.05). Moreover, the same trends of SFA and n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio were also observed in breast and thigh meats of birds fed CLA alone. In the CXO-fed group or CHO-fed group, n-3 and n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio in both breast and thigh meat increased compared with CLA group, while SFA content decreased (p<0.05). FHO fed-groups had the lowest proportion of n-6 fatty acid in both breast and thigh meats compared to other fat source treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, the increased levels of crude fat and SFA in liver and meats obtained by feeding CLA could be reduced by its combination with FXO or FHO. In addition, the combination of CLA and FXO or FHO fed to broiler chicks could increase the n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio of their meat along with the deposition of CLA.

Keywords

Broiler Chicken;Conjugated Linoleic Acid;Fish Oil;Flaxseed Oil;Omega Fatty Acid

References

  1. Badinga, L., K. T. Selberg, A. C. Dinges, C. W. Comer and R. D. Miles. 2003. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic lipid content and fatty acid composition in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 82:111-116. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.1.111
  2. Belury, M. A. 2002. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid in health: physiological effects and mechanisms of action. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 22:505-531. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.22.021302.121842
  3. Bhattacharya, A., J. Banu, M. Rahman, J. Causey and G. Fernandes. 2006. Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acid in health and disease. J. Nutr. Biochem. 17:789-810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2006.02.009
  4. Buccioni, A., M. Antongiovanni, M. Mele, M. Gualtieri and S. Minieri. 2009. Effect of oleic and conjugated linoleic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on the live growth performances, carcass traits and meat fatty acid profile. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 8:603-614. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2009.603
  5. Cook, M. E., D. L. Jerome and M. Pariza. 1997. Broilers fed conjugated linoleic acid had enhanced bone ash. Poult. Sci. 76 (Suppl 1):S41.
  6. Crespo, N. and E. Esteve-Garcia. 2001. Dietary fatty acid profile modifies abdominal fat deposition in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 80:71-78. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/80.1.71
  7. FAO/WHO. 1994. Fats and oil in human nutrition (report of a joint expert consultation), FAO Food and Nutrition No 57, Rome: WHO/FAO.
  8. Folch, J., M. Less and G. H. Sloane-Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509.
  9. Gerster, H. 1998. Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 68:159-173.
  10. Huang, Z. B., R. G. Ackman, W. M. N. Ratnayake and F. G. Proudfoot. 1990. Effect of dietary fish oil on n-3 fatty acid levels in chicken eggs and thigh flesh. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38:743-747. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00093a034
  11. Hulan, H. W., R. G. Ackman, W. M. N. Ratnayake and F. G. Proudfoot. 1988. Omega-3 fatty acid levels and performance of broilers chickens fed redfish meal or redfish oil. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 68:533-547. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas88-059
  12. Joo, S. T., J. I. Lee, Y. L. Ha and G. B. Park. 2002. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color, and water-holding capacity of pork loin. J. Anim. Sci. 80:108-112.
  13. Kelley, D. S., M. Vemuri, Y. Adkins, S. H. Gill, D. Fedor and B. E. Mackey. 2009. Flaxseed oil (ALA) prevents trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid-induced insulin resistance in mice. Br. J. Nutr. 101:701-708. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114508027451
  14. Krejci-Treu, T., E. Strakova, P. Suchy and I. Herzig. 2010. Effect of vegetable oil fortified feeds on the content of fatty acids in breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens. Acta Vet. Brno. 79:S21-S28. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201079S9S021
  15. Larsen. T. M., S. Toubro and A. Astrup. 2003. Efficacy and safety of dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for the treatment of obesity: evidence from animal and human studies. J. Lipid. Res. 44:2234-2241. https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.R300011-JLR200
  16. Olomu, J. M. and V. E. Baracos. 1991. Influence of dietary flaxseed oil on the performance, muscle protein deposition and fatty acid composition of broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 70:1403-1411. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0701403
  17. Park, Y., K. J. Alright, W. Liu, J. M. Storkson, M. E. Cook and M. W. Pariza. 1997. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition in mice. Lipids 32:853-858. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-997-0109-x
  18. SAS. 2004. SAS User Guide to Statistics (Version 9.12). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC. USA.
  19. Shang, X. G., F. L. Wang, D. F. Li, J. D. Yin and J. Y. Li. 2004. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the productivity of laying hens and egg quality during refrigerated storage. Poult. Sci. 83:1688-1695. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.10.1688
  20. Simopoulos, A. P. 2003. Importance of the ratio of omega- 6/omega-3 essential fatty acids: Evolutionary aspects. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 92:171-174.
  21. Smith, S. B., T. S. Hively, G. M. Cortese, J. J. Han, K. Y. Chung, P. Castenada, C. D. Gilbert, V. L. Adams and H. J. Mersmann. 2002. Conjugated linoleic acid depresses the $\Delta$9 desaturase index and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase enzyme activity in porcine subcutaneous adipose tissue. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2110-2115.
  22. Suksombat, W., T. Boonmee and P. Lounglawan. 2007. Effects of various levels of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on fatty acid content and carcass composition of broilers. Poult. Sci. 86:318-324. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.2.318
  23. Szymczyk, B., P. M. Pisulewsky, W. Szczurek and P. Hanczakowsky. 2001. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, feed conversion efficiency, and subsequent carcass quality in broiler chickens. Br. J. Nutr. 85:465-473. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2000293
  24. Thiel-Cooper, R. L., F. C. Parrish, J. C. Jr., J. C. Sparks, B. R. Wiegand and R. C. Ewan. 2001. Conjugated linoleic acid changes swine performance and carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1821-1828.
  25. Tricon, S., G. C. Burdge, C. M. Williams, P. C. Calder and P. Yaqoob. 2005. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on human health-related outcomes. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 64:171-182. https://doi.org/10.1079/PNS2005418
  26. Wahle, K. W., S. D. Heys and D. Rotondo. 2004. Conjugated linoleic acids: are they beneficial or detrimental to health? Prog. Lipid. Res. 43:553-587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2004.08.002
  27. Wang, Y. and P. J. Jones. 2004. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and body composition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79:1153S-1158S.

Cited by

  1. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae (Schizochytrium) Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers vol.28, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.14.0463
  2. Conjugated linoleic acid as functional food in poultry products: A review vol.20, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2016.1168835
  3. Addition of Capsicum oleoresin, Carvacrol, Cinnamaldehyde and their mixtures to the broiler diet II: Effects on meat quality vol.60, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-018-0165-9