Study on Body Composition, Biochemical Parameters, and Consumption of Convenience Foods According to ${\beta}$-3 Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphism in University Students

베타-3 아드레날린 수용체 유전자 다형성에 따른 대학생의 생화학 지표, 체성분과 편의식품 섭취실태에 관한 연구

  • 안명수 (해피뷰삼성병원 내과) ;
  • 김경희 (목포대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Received : 2011.05.19
  • Accepted : 2011.08.05
  • Published : 2011.08.31


The purpose of this study was to investigate the body composition, biochemical parameters, and consumption of convenience foods according to ${\beta}$-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism in university students. A survey was conducted on a total of 486 students - 189 males and 297 females. Based on a self-reporting method, questionnaires were administered for over 20 minutes, and ${\beta}$-3 adrenergic receptor and blood samples were also analyzed. The genotype frequencies of ${\beta}$-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism were Trp/Trp homozygote (73.0%) and Trp/Arg heterozygote (27.0%) in male students. For the female students, the distribution of genotypes was Trp/Trp (71.0%) and Trp/Arg (29.0%). There were no differences according to biochemical parameters (ALT, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and hemoglobin) or body composition. Males with TT genotype frequently ate Ramyon (2.40${\pm}$0.52), Cup Ramyon (2.37${\pm}$0.39), Kimchi (2.23${\pm}$0.61), and frozen meat (2.00${\pm}$0.44), whereas males with TA genotype ate Fries (frozen food) (1.90${\pm}$0.79), Smoked meat (1.67${\pm}$0.81), and Canned fruit (1.64${\pm}$0.81). Females with TT genotype frequently ate Frozen fries (2.21${\pm}$0.35), Kimbab (2.12${\pm}$0.44), and Ramyon (1.85${\pm}$0.40), whereas females with TA genotype frequently ate Kimchi (1.73${\pm}$0.98), Fries (frozen food) (1.46${\pm}$0.26), and Cup Ramyon (1.30${\pm}$0.34). When questioned about satisfaction about body shape, 22.8 and 60.8% of those with TT genotype answered that they were 'satisfied' or needed to 'lose weight', respectively, whereas 18.0 and 63.9% of those with TA genotype answered that they were 'satisfied' or needed to 'lose weight', respectively. In conclusion, this study found no significant effects in terms of ${\beta}$-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism, which suggests that health-promoting education needs to be developed so that university students appropriately recognize their bodies and control their weight in desirable ways. Therefore, it is necessary to educate individuals with TT genotype how to buy reasonable foods by understanding the interrelationship between convenience foods and health care and by checking the nutrition index labels on convenience foods. Thus, it is recommended that a health-promoting program be developed for the promotion of healthy lifestyles.


  1. Andre T, Raymond DS, Jeremy DW, Alan RS, Roman VD, Kristi SE, Eric TP. 1999. Obesity-related phenotypes and the beta-3 adrenoreceptor gene variant in postmenopausal women. Diabetes, 48:1425-1428
  2. Arner P. 1995. The $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor-a cause and cure of obesity. N Engl J Med, 333(6):382-383
  3. Bak AAA, Grobbee DE. 1989. The effect on serum cholesterol levels of coffee breweed by filtering or boiling. N. Engl J. Med, 321(21):1432-1437
  4. Bogardus C, Lilioja S, Ravussin E, Abbott W, Zawadzki JK, Young A, Knowler WC, Jacobowitz R, Moll PP. 1986. Familial dependence of the resting metabolic rate. N Engl J Med, 315:96-1000
  5. Bouchard C. 1996. The cause of obestiy; advances in molecular biology but stagnation on the genetic front. Diabetologia, 39:1532-1533
  6. Bouchard C, Perusse L. 1993. Genetics of obesity. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 13:337-354
  7. Corella D, Guillen M, Portoles O, Sorli JV, Alonso V Folch J, Saiz C. 2001. Gender specific associaations of the Trp64Arg mutation in the beta-3-adrenergic receptor gene with obesity related phenotypes in a Mediterranean population: interaction with a common lipoprotein lipase gene variation. J. Intern. Med, 250(4):348-360
  8. Despres JP, Allard C, Tremblay A, Talbot J, Bouchard C. 1985. Evidence for a regional component of body fatness in the association with serum lipids in men and women. Metabolism, 34:967-973
  9. Elisaneth W, Markku L, Jeremy W, Alan RS, Lief CG. 1999. Association of a polymorphism in the $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor gene with features of the insulin resistance syndrome in Finns. The England Journal of Medicine, 333:348-351
  10. Emorine L, Blin N, Strosberg AD. 1994. The human $\beta$-3 adrenoreceptor: the search for a physiological function. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 15:3-7
  11. Fujisawa T, Ikegami H, Yamato E, Takekawa K, Nakagawa Y, Hamada Y, Oga T, Ueda H, Shintani M, Fukuda M, Ogihara T. 1996. Association of Trp64Arg mutation of the $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor with NIDDM and body weight gain. Diabetologia, 39:349-352
  12. Fujisawa T, Ikegami H, Kawaguchi Y, Ogihara T. 1998. Meta-Analysis of the Association of Trp64Arg polymorphism of $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor gene with body mass index. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 83:2441-2444
  13. Gagnon J, Mauriege P, Roy S, Sjostrom D, Chagnon YC, Dionne FT, Oppert JM, Perusse L, Sjostrom L, Bouchard C. 1996. The Trp64Arg mutation of the $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor gene has no effect on obesity phenotypes in the Quebec family study and Swedish obese subjects cohorts. J Clin Invest, 98:2086-2093
  14. Garenc C, Perusse L, Rankinen T, Gagnon J, Leon AS, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Rao DC, Bouchard C. 2001. The Trp64Arg polymorphism of the $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor gene is not associate with training-induced changes in body composition: The Heritage family study. Obes. Res, 9(6):337-341
  15. Genest J, Cohn JS. 1995. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factor: Targeting high risk individuals. Am J Cardiol, 76:8A-20A
  16. Ghosh S, Langefeld CD, Ally D, Watanabe RM, Hauser ER, Magnuson VL, Nylund SJ, Valle T, Eriksson J, Bergman RN, Tuomilehto J, Collins FS, Boehnke M. 1999. The W64R variant of the $\beta$3-adrenergic receptor is not associated with type II diabetes or obesity in a large Finnish sample. Diabetologia, 42:238-244
  17. Giacobino JP. 1995. $\beta$-3 adrenoreceptor: an update. Eur J Endocriol, 132:377-85
  18. Han MJ, Cho HA. 1998. Dietary habit and perceived stress of college students in Seoul area. Korean J Dietary Culture, 13(4):317-326
  19. Horn LV. 2000. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease starts in childhood. J Am Diet Assoc, 100(1):41-42
  20. Hyun WJ. 2001. The relationship between obesity, lifestyle, and dietary intake and serum lipid level in male university students. Korean J Comm Nutr 6(2):162-171
  21. Jahan H, Odette P, Anders T, Fredrik L, Stefan M.H, Fancois C, Peter Arner. 1999. Polymorphism of the Human $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor forms a well-conserved haplotype that is associate with moderate obesity and altered receptor function. Diabetes 48:203-205
  22. Kim BR, Han YB, Chang UJ. 1997. A Study on the Attitude toward Weight Control, Diet Behavior and Food Habits of College Students. Korean J Community Nutrition, 2(4):530-538
  23. Kim KH. 2006. Comparisons of dietary, living habits and blood parameters in underweight and overweight university students. Korean J. Food Culture, 21(4):366-374
  24. Kim KH, Park MW. 2009. Comparison of UCP2 polymorphism and dietary habits in university students. Korean J Food Culture, 24(2):224-235
  25. Korean Nutritional Statistica Office. 2009. The cause of death statistics 2008
  26. Kwak DK, Lee KE, Park HW, Ryn K, Choi EJ, Hong WS, Jang HJ, Kim SH. 1997. The survey of housewives perception for the development of refrigerated convenience foods for Koreans. The Korean Society of Dietary Culture, 12(4):391-400
  27. Lee HJ, Park HY, Hong YS, Sung YA. 2002. Associations of polymorphisms in uncoupling protein 2 and $\beta$3- adrenergic receptor with obesity in Korean adults. Endocrinology, 17(2):236-245
  28. Lee JH, Kim JS, Lee MY, Chung SH, Chang KJ. 2001. A study on weight-control experience, eating disorder and nutrient intake of college students attending Web class via the internet. Korean J Community Nutrition, 6(4):604-616
  29. Lee JS, Kim JS, Hong KH, Jang YA, Park SH, Sohn YA, Chung HR. 2009. A comparison of food and nutrient intakes between instant noodle consumers and non-consumers among Korean children and adolescents. Korean J Nutr 42(8):723-731
  30. Lim YS, Park HR, Han GJ. 2005. Comparison of preference for convenience and dietary attitude in college students by sex in Seoul and Kyunggi-do area. J Korean Diet Assoc 11(1):11-20
  31. Moon SJ, Yoon HJ, Kim JH, Lee YJ. 1998. A study on the perception and consumption pattern of convenience foods by Korean college students. Korean J Food Culture 13(3):227-239
  32. Mun SJ, Yoon HJ, Kim JH, Lee YJ. 1999. A factor analysis on the value system of convenience foods by Korean college students. J Korean Society of Food & Cookery Science 15(4):327-337
  33. Pulkkinen A, Kareinen A, Saarinen L, Heikkinen S, Lehto S, Laakso M. 1999. The codon 64 polymorphism of the $\beta$3- adrenergic receptor gene is not associated with coronary heart disease or insulin resistance in nondiabetic subjects and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Metablolism. 48(7):853-856
  34. Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Knowler W, Christin L, Freymond D, Abbott W, Bouce V, Howard B, Bogardus C. 1998. Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body-weight gain. N Engl J Med, 318:467-472
  35. Regina LT, Alice JT. 2005. Health-promoting behaviors and psychosocial well-being of university students in Hong-Kong. Public Health Nurs., 22(3):209-220
  36. Rehm J, Greenfield TK, Rogers JD. 2001. Average volume of alcohol consumption, patterns of drinking and all-cause mortality: results from the US National Alcohol Survey. Am J Epideemiol 153(1):64-71
  37. Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ. 1979. A role for brown adipose tissue in diet-induced thermogenesis. Nature, 281:31-35
  38. Sakane N, Yoshida T, Umekawa T, Kondo M, Sakai Y, Takahashi T. 1997. Beta-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism: a genetic marker for visceral fat obesity and the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetoloia, 40:200-204
  39. Sipilinene R, Usitupa M, Heikkinen S, Rissanen A, Laakso M. 1997. Polymorphism of the $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor gene affects basa metabolic rate in obese Finns. Diabetes, 46:77-80
  40. Strosberg AD, Pietri-Rouxel F. 1996. Function and regulation of the $\beta$-3 adrenoreceptor. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 17:3337-3381
  41. Thomas GN, Tomlinson B, Chan JC, Young RP, Critchley JA. 2000. The Trp64Arg polymorphism of the $\beta$3-adrenergic receptor gene and obesity in chinese subjects with components of the metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 24:545-551
  42. Unger RH. 1995. Lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of obesitydependent obesitydependent NIDDM: genetic and clinical implications. Diabetes, 44:863-870
  43. Urgert R, Meyboom S, Kuilman M. 1996. Comparison of the effect of cafetiere and filtered coffee on serum concentrations of liver amino transferase and lipids: six month randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 313:1362-1366
  44. Urhammer SA, Clausen JO, Hansen T, Pedersen O. 1996. Insulin sensitivity and body weight changes in young white carriers of the codon 64 amino acid polymorphism of the $\beta$-adrenergic receptor gene. Diabetes, 45:1115-1120
  45. Walston J, Silver K, Bogardus C, Knowler WC, Celi FS, Austin S, Manning B, Strosberg D, Stern MP, Raben N, Sorkin JD, Roth J, Shuldiner AR. 1995. Time of onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus and genetic variation in the $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor gene. N Engl J Med, 333:343-347
  46. Widen E, Lehto M, Kanninen T, Walston J, Shuldinder A, Groop LC. 1995. Association of a polymorphism in the $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor gene with feature of the insulin resistance syndrome in Finns. N Eng J Med, 333:348-351
  47. Yoshida T, Sakane N, Umekawa T, Sakai M, Takahashi T, Kondo M. 1995. Mutation of the $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor gene and response to treatment of obesity. Lancet, 346:1433-1434
  48. Yoon S, Son KH, Kwak DK, Kim JS, Kwon DJ. 1998. Consumer trends on dietary and food purchasing behaviors and perception for the convenience foods. The Korean Society of Dietary Culture 13(3):197-206
  49. Yun TS, Kim YD, Kim HS, Kim MJ, Suh YS, Kwon JH, Choi JS, Kim JG, Ha SW, Kim BW, Won KC, Lee HW, Shon HS, Lee JH, Yoon HD, Kim WH, Yun YG, Lee IK. 2003. Association of polymorphism in $\beta$-3 adrenergic receptor gene with fat distribution. Korean Endocrine Society, 18(2):184-192