Effect of Covering the Soil with Naturally Degrading Polymer Film on the Benthic Macroinvertebrates Community Structure in Paddy Field

자연분해비닐 논토양 피복이 저서성 대형무척추동물의 군집구조에 미치는 영향

  • Park, Jin-Young (Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology & Environmental Sciences, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kwon, Soon-Jik (Korea Ecosystem Service, Gasan-dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul Metropolitan Government) ;
  • Nam, Hong-Sik (Organic Agriculture Division, Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA) ;
  • Kang, Chung-Kil (Organic Agriculture Division, Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA) ;
  • Park, Jong-Kyun (Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology & Environmental Sciences, Kyungpook National University)
  • 박진영 (경북대학교 생태환경대학 생물응용학과) ;
  • 권순직 ((주) 생태조사단) ;
  • 남홍식 (국립농업과학원 유기농업과) ;
  • 강충길 (국립농업과학원 유기농업과) ;
  • 박종균 (경북대학교 생태환경대학 생물응용학과)
  • Received : 2011.03.07
  • Accepted : 2011.06.20
  • Published : 2011.06.30


This study was conducted to investigate the influence of natural degrading polymer film covering in rice paddies on the benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in Dangsu-dong, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do from May 2009 to September 2009. We compared 5 treatments: golden apple snail farming (GF), natural degrading polymer film + organic farming (NOF), natural degrading polymer film + chemical farming (NCF), conventional farming (CF), and no fertilization (NF) as the control. The total number of species was highest in NOF followed by GF, NF, NCF, and CF. The total number of individuals was highest in NOF followed by NCF, CF, NF, and GF. The Dominance index (DI) ranged from 0.43 to 0.95. The highest dominance index was in GF followed by NCF, NF=CF, and NOF. The species diversity index (H') for each experimental plot ranged from 0.49 to 2.93. The average species diversity index was highest in NOF followed by NF, GF, CF, and NCF. After the natural degrading polymer film covered the paddies, the benthic macroinvertebrates tended to recover, but leeches and aquatic beetles increased. Mollusca and Annelida, which are sensitive taxa, decreased in both species and individual numbers after the soil was covered with the natural degrading polymer film. The number of species tended to recover. However, the number of individuals continued to decrease.d, especially individuals. Since then, the number of species tended to recover. However, the number of individuals decreased.


Benthic macroinvertebrates;Community structure;Natural degrading polymer film;Rice paddy


  1. Bang, S.W. and M.K. Cho. 2008. Ecological Risk of Alien Apple Snails Used in Environmentally-friendly agriculture and the urgent need for its risk management in Korea. J. Environ. Biol. 26: 129-137.
  2. Bae, Y.J. and B.H. Lee. 2001. Human impacts on stream ecosystems and freshwater arthropods in Korea. Kor. J. Entomol. 21: 63-76.
  3. Bae, Y.J., D.H. Won, W.J. Lee and H.U. Sung. 2003. Development of environment assessment technique and biodiversity management system and their application to stream ecosystems in Korea. Kor. J. Entomol. 23: 223-233.
  4. Bloembergen, S., J. David, D. Geyer, A. Gustafson, J. Snook and R. Narayan. 1993. Biodegradation and composting studies of polymeric materials. In: Biodegradation plastics and polymers. Doi, Y. and Fukuda, K. (eds.). Osaka. pp. 601-609.
  5. Doane, W.M. 1992. USDA research on starch-based biodegradation plastics. Starch 44: 292-295.
  6. Guillet, J.E. 1973. Polymers and ecological problems. Baum, B. and White, R.A.(eds.), Plenum Press, New York. pp. 45-60.
  7. Han, M.S. 2000. Evaluation of biological diversity in environmentally-friendly agriculture. KRC. Agricultural Technology. pp. 38-42.
  8. Han, M.S., K.K. Kang, J.H. Kim, S.K. Kim, M.H. Go and H.M. Park. 2000. Evaluation of biological diversity in rice cropping. RDA. Research Reports. pp. 128-137.
  9. Han, M.S., J.D. Shin, Y.E. Na, N.J. Lee, M.H. Park and S.G. Kim. 2002. Change of invertebrate density in rice paddies of different fertilizer managements in demonstration villages of sustainable agriculture. Kor. J. Environ. Agri. 21: 96-101.
  10. Han, M.S., Y.E. Na, H.S. Bang, M.H. Kim, M.K. Kim, K.A. Roh and J.T. Lee. 2007. The fauna of aquatic invertebrates in paddy field. Kor. J. Environ. Agri. 26: 267-273.
  11. Huag, J.H., A.S. Shetty and M.S. Wang. 1990. Biodegradable plastics. Adv. Polym. Technol. 10: 23-30.
  12. Hynes, H.B.N. 1963. Imported organic matter and secondary productivity in streams. Proc. 16th Int. Congr. Zool. 4: 324-329.
  13. Jung, K.S. 2007. Odonata of Korea. Ilgongyooksa press. Seoul. 512 pp.
  14. Kang, C.K., H.S. Nam, J.E. Park, M.K. Hong, T.S. Park, J.H. Rye and Y.H. Cho. 2009. Natural degrading polymer film developed for organic weed management of rice paddy. Kor. J. Weed. Sci. (Proceedings of the second half of 2009). 29: 107.
  15. Kim, B.S., Y.K. Park, S.K. Kim, Y.H. Jung and K.C. Jung. 1996. Effects of pesticide use on agricultural biota. RDA project report. pp. 1112-1122.
  16. Kim, S.H., J.Y. Lee, S.W. Seo and J.E. Lee. 2003. Community structure and biological water quality evaluation of benthic macroinvertbrates in water system Andong. J. Enviro. Res. 3: 89-97.
  17. Kehde, P. M. and J. L. Wilhm. 1972. The effects of grazing by snails on co-munity structure of periphyton in laboratory streams. Am. Midl. Nat. 87: 8-24.
  18. Lee, D.K. 1993. Ecological study on the aquatic insect community in organic and chemical farming rice paddies. Kor. J. Limn. 26: 129-140.
  19. Lee, J.W., J.H. Shin, J.C. Jung and H.J. Kang. 2000a. Aquatic insect community structure of Mt. Myeongjisan in a mountain stream. J. Bas. Sci. Res. 20: 153-164.
  20. Lee, J.W., K.B. Kim and J.H. Kim. 2003. Community structure of benthic macroinvertbrates in the Osib river. Bulletin. KACN. 1: 111-130.
  21. Lee, J.E., S.J. Kwon and J.Y. Park. 2000b. Aquatic insecta fauna of Gudam backwamp. Bulletin. KACN. 5: 56-61.
  22. Lee, J.E., J.S. Kim and S.D. Kim. 2000c. Community structure of benthic macroinvertbrates in Mt. Cheongryangsan vally. J. Environ. Res. 1: 257-260.
  23. Lee, J.E. and J.S. Kim. 2001. Community structure change of benthic macroinvertbrates in a mountain stream of forest fire area and non forest fire area. J. Enviro. Res. 1: 87-93.
  24. Lee, J.E. and S.D. Kim. 2002. Community structure and biological water quality evaluation of benthic macroinvertbrates of Andong region upstream of the Nakdong river. J. Environ. Res. 2: 72-79.
  25. Lee, S.I., S.H. Sur, K.M. Hong, Y.S. Shin, S.H. Jang and B.Y. Shin. 2001. A study on the properties of fully bio-photodegradable composite film. J. Int. of Industrial Technol. 29: 129-134.
  26. Lloyd, M. and R. J. Ghelord. 1964. A table for calculation the "Equitability" component of species diversity. J. Anim. Ecol. 33: 217-225.
  27. Margalef, R. 1958. Information theory in ecology. Gen. Sys. 3: 36-71.
  28. McNaughton, S. J. 1967. Relationship among functional properties of california grassland. Nature 216: 168-169.
  29. MERK. 2001. The 2nd National Natural Environment Research Guidelines. MERK. pp. 49-116.
  30. MIFAFF. 1999. Sustainable Agriculture Demonstration Village Project Guidelines. RDA. pp. 1-114.
  31. Park, K.L., W.K. Jung, J.W. Choi and Y. Kim. 2009. Kor. Ass. Org. Agri. Evaluation of biodiversity within rice paddy ecosystems. Kor. J. Org. Agri. (Proceedings of the second half of 2009). pp. 23-28.
  32. Park, S.D. 2002a. Fertilizer, herbicide effects on the farming of rice bran excellent. Kor. Nat. Fam. 55: 63-67.
  33. Park, J.S., S.Y. Lee and C.K. Kang. 2001. Technological and Economic Analysis of Environment-friendly Rice Farming. Kor. J. Org. Agri. 9: 69-82.
  34. Park, Y.H. 2002b. Comparison of duck and snails farming in sustainable agriculture of rice cropping. Kor. J. Org. Agri. (Proceedings of the first half of 2002). pp. 133-141.
  35. Pielou, E. C. 1969. Shannonʼs formula as a measure of specific diversity, its use and misuse. Amer. Nat. 100: 463-465.
  36. Pielou, E. C. 1975. Ecology diversity Wiley, New York. 165 pp.
  37. Shin, B.Y., S.H. Jang and B.W. Jung. 1997. A study on the photo- biodegradable film containing calcium carbonate, starch and crab shell. J. Int. of Indus. Technol. 25: 103-119.
  38. Song, G.R. 1995. Systematics of the Hirudinea (Annelidae) in Korea. Master thesis, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
  39. Wilhm, J. L. 1972. Graphic and mathematical analysis of biotic communities in polluted stream. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 17: 223-252.
  40. Won, D.H., S.J. Kwon and Y.C. Jeon. 2005. Aquatic insect of Korea. Korea ec system service press. Seoul. 415 pp.
  41. Yoon, I.B. 1995. Explanatory diagrams of aquatic insects. Jeongheangsa press. Seoul. 262 pp.

Cited by

  1. Effect of Mulching with Easily-Decomposable Organic Materials on the Rice Growth and Earthworm Ecology Characteristics in Paddy Fields vol.22, pp.4, 2014,