Survey on the Patterns of Fortified Food Consumption and Intake of Vitamins and Minerals in Fortified Foods by Elementary School and Middle-School Students in Korea

우리나라 일부 초등학생과 중학생의 영양강화식품 섭취 실태 및 영양강화식품을 통한 비타민과 무기질 섭취량 조사

  • Kim, Sun-Hyo (Department of Foodservice Management and Nutrition, Kongju National University)
  • 김선효 (공주대학교 외식상품학과)
  • Received : 2011.03.09
  • Accepted : 2011.05.06
  • Published : 2011.06.30


This study was performed to investigate patterns of fortified food (FF) consumption and intake of vitamins and minerals from FFs among 577 Korean children (12.4 years of age) who attended elementary or middle school. FFs eaten by children as a snack were surveyed using the food record method during 3 days, including 2 week days and one weekend. As a result, 114 FF items were eaten by the children, and several kinds of nutrients such as vitamin A, D, E, B complex, C, calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were fortified in these foods. Ca-FFs (65.8%) were most frequently consumed, followed by vitamin C-FFs (33.4%) and vitamin D-FFs (33.3%). The number of FF items in each food group was the most in the milk group (n=24, 21.0%), followed by the beverage group (n=19, 16.7%), and the cookie/bread/cake group (n=17, 14.9%). Fortified nutrients in FFs were in various combinations, but the major combination patterns were Ca, Ca plus vitamins, Ca plus vitamins plus other minerals, and Ca plus other minerals. Daily mean intakes of vitamins and minerals from the FFs were 66-300% more than those of the recommended nutrient intake (RNI ) or adequate intake (AI) for most vitamins and minerals. Daily maximum intakes (95th percentile) of vitamins and minerals from FFs were 1-15 times the RNI or AI for most vitamins and minerals. Vitamin and mineral consumption ratios from each FF group were different according to the kind of fortified nutrient. For example, vitamin C was mostly eaten in fortified beverages (46-54%), and Fe was mostly eaten in fortified cookie/breads/cakes (87%). The above results show that FF consumption varied widely among the children, and that most of the children's foods were fortified with several vitamins and minerals without a common rule; thus, subjects risked over consuming vitamins and minerals by eating FFs. Therefore, practical guideline on FF use for children's optimal nutrition and health should be provided through nutrition education.


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