DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Melatonin and Polyphenol Contents in Some Edible Sprouts (Alfalfa, Chicory, Rape, Red Kale and Sunflower)

  • Kim, Seok-Joong (Department of Food and Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University) ;
  • Cho, Moo-Ho (Department of Food Science and Technology, Catholic University of Daegu)
  • Received : 2011.05.04
  • Accepted : 2011.06.02
  • Published : 2011.06.30

Abstract

The melatonin, total polyphenol contents, and DPPH radical scavenging activity were determined in alfalfa, chicory, rape, red kale and sunflower after germination for four days at $24{\pm}0.1^{\circ}C$. Compared with seeds, melatonin content was increased in all sprouts, at the highest level in red kale (2,502.9 pg/g, 5.6 times higher than seed) followed by rape (2,430.1 pg/g), chicory (2,037.7 pg/g), alfalfa (1,160.8 pg/g) and sunflower (768.2 pg/g) sprout, however, the addition of tryptophan (0.5 mM), the precursor of melatonin synthesis, did not show any desirable effect. Both polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity were substantially increased in chicory (8.7 mg/g, 66%), rape (10.7 mg/g, 51%) and red kale (11.0 mg/g, 53%) sprouts, but not in alfalfa and sunflower sprouts. Melatonin content per gram polyphenol (ng/g) was also increased in all sprouts through germination. Germination was effective in increasing melatonin in all seeds tested, while its effect on polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity was species dependent.

References

  1. Chavan JK, Kadam SS. 1989. Nutritional improvement of cereals by sprouting. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 28: 401-437. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398909527508
  2. Sattar A, Shah A, Zeb A. 1995. Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in germinating rapeseed cultivars. Plant Food Human Nutr 47: 63-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01088168
  3. Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P. 1997. Broccoli sprouts: An exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 10367-10372. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.19.10367
  4. Lv Q, Yang Y, Zhao Y, Gu D, He D, Yili A, Ma Q, Cheng Z, Gao Y, Aisa HA, Ito Y. 2009. Comparative study on separation and purification of isoflavones from the seeds and sprouts of chickpea by HSCCC. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 32: 2879-2892. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826070903297277
  5. Kum JS, Choi BK, Lee HY, Park JD. 2004. Physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice. Korean J Food Preserv 11: 182-188.
  6. Wang KH, Lai YH, Chang JC, Ko TF, Shyu SL, Chiou RYY. 2005. Germination of peanut kernels to enhance resveratrol biosynthesis and prepare sprouts as a functional vegetable. J Agric Food Chem 53: 242-246. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048804b
  7. Pasko P, Barton H, Zagrodzki P, Gorinstein S, Folta M, Zachwieja Z. 2009. Anthocyanins, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in amaranth and quinoa seeds and sprouts during their growth. Food Chem 115: 994-998. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.037
  8. Randhir R, Lin YT, Shetty K. 2004. Stimulation of phenolics, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in dark germinated mung bean sprouts in response to peptide and phytochemical elicitors. Process Biochem 39: 637-647. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(03)00197-3
  9. Lin PY, Lai HM. 2006. Bioactive compounds in legumes and their germinated products. J Agric Food Chem 54: 3807-3814. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf060002o
  10. Kim SJ, Zaidul ISM, Suzuki T, Mukasa Y, Hashimoto N, Takigawa S, Noda T, Matsuura-Endo C, Yamauchi H. 2008. Comparison of phenolic compositions between common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum) sprouts. Food Chem 110: 814-820. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.050
  11. Perl-Treves R, Perl A. 2002. Oxidative stress: an introduction. In Oxidative Stress in Plants. Inze D, van Montagu M, eds. Taylor & Francis Inc., London, UK. p 1-32.
  12. Wojtyla L, Garnczarska M, Zalewski T, Bednarsk W, Ratajczak L, Jurga S. 2006. A comparative study of water distribution, free radical production and activation of antioxidative metabolism in germinating pea seeds. J Plant Physiol 163: 1207-1220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2006.06.014
  13. Mwikya SM, Camp JV, Rodrigez R, Huyghebaet A. 2001. Effects of sprouting on nutrient and antinutrient composition of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris var. Rose coco). Eur Food Res Technol 212: 188-191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170000200
  14. Hardeland R, Pandi-Perumal SR, Cardinali DP. 2006. Melatonin. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 38: 313-316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2005.08.020
  15. Bonnefont-Rousselot D, Collin F. 2010. Melatonin: Action as antioxidant and potential applications in human disease and aging. Toxicology 278: 55-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2010.04.008
  16. Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Gitto E, Sainz RM, Mayo JC, Leon J, Manchester LC, Kilic VE, Kilic U. 2004. Pharmacological utility of melatonin in reducing oxidative cellular and molecular damage. Pol J Pharmacol 56: 159-170.
  17. Lerner AB, Case JD, Takahashi Y, Lee TY, Mori W. 1958. Isolation of melatonin, the pineal gland factor that lightens melanocytes. J Am Chem Soc 80: 2587.
  18. Paredes SD, Korkmaz A, Manchester LC, Tan DX, Reiter RJ. 2009. Phytomelatonin: a review. J Exp Botany 60: 57-69. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ern284
  19. Hattori A, Migitaka H, Iigo M, Itho M, Yamamoto K, Ohtani-Kaneko R, Hara M, Suzuki T, Reiter RJ. 1995. Identification of melatonin in plants and its effects on plasma melatonin levels and binding to melatonin receptors in vertebrates. Biochem Mol Biol Int 35: 627-634.
  20. Singleton VL, Joseph A, Rossi J. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolibidic-phosphotungstic acid reagent. Am J Enol Vitic 16: 144-158.
  21. Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1201. https://doi.org/10.1038/1811199a0
  22. Manchester LC, Tan DX, Reiter RJ, Park W, Monis K, Qi W. 2000. High levels of melatonin in the seeds of edible plants: possible function in germ tissue protection. Life Sci 67: 3023-3029. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00896-1
  23. Posmyk MM, Janas KM. 2009. Melatonin in plants. Acta Physiol Plant 31: 1-11.
  24. Cho MH, No HK, Prinyawiwatkul W. 2008. Chitosan treatments affect growth and selected quality of sunflower sprouts. J Food Sci 73: S70-S77.
  25. Murch SJ, KrishnaRaj S, Saxena PK. 2000. Tryptophan is a precursor for melatonin and serotonin biosynthesis in in vitro regenerated St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L. cv. Anthos) plants. Plant Cell Rep 19: 698-704. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002990000206
  26. Sattler SE, Gilliland LU, Magallanes-Lundback M, Pollard M, DellaPenna D. 2004. Vitamin E is essential for seed longevity and for preventing lipid peroxidation during germination. Plant Cell 16: 1419-1432. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.021360
  27. Mansfield SG, Briarty LG. 1992. Cotyledon cell-development in Arabidopsis thaliana during reserve deposition. Can J Bot 70: 151-164. https://doi.org/10.1139/b92-021
  28. Schopfer P, Plachy C, Frahry G. 2001. Release of reactive oxygen intermediates (superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and peroxidase in germinating radish seeds controlled by light, gibberellin, and abscisic acid. Plant Physiol 125: 1591-1602. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.125.4.1591
  29. Gechev TS, van Breusegem F, Stone JM, Denev I, Laloi C. 2006. Reactive oxygen species as signals that modulate plant stress responses and programmed cell death. Bioessays 28: 1091-1101. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.20493
  30. Jacobs DR Jr, Steffen LM. 2003. Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. Am J Clin Nutr 78: 508S-513S.

Cited by

  1. Serotonin, melatonin, and certain indole derivatives profiles in rutabaga and kohlrabi seeds, sprouts, bulbs, and roots vol.59, pp.2, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.07.024