Physicochemical and Microbial Properties of Korean Traditional Rice Wine, Makgeolli, Supplemented with Black Garlic Extracts during Fermentation

  • Jeong, Yoon-Hwa (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University)
  • 투고 : 2011.05.31
  • 심사 : 2011.06.10
  • 발행 : 2011.06.30


The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physicochemical and microbiological properties of Korean traditional rice wine, Makgeolli, supplemented with black garlic extract during fermentation. Black garlic extract was diluted with distilled water to produce 0.5% and 1.0% black garlic solutions. Those solutions were then used to make rice solutions which included 2 kg rice, 40 g Nuruk (a fermentation starter), and 14 g yeast. After being mixed, the rice solutions were fermented for 7 days in a water bath at $28^{\circ}C$. The alcohol contents of the control, 0.5% and 1.0% black garlic Makgeolli were 16.9, 16.0, and 16.2%, respectively. Total acidity, total soluble solids, and color increased throughout the fermentation process. There was an increase of microorganisms throughout the fermentation period in all the samples. Glucose was the highest free sugar, and succinic acid was the highest organic acid detected in all the samples. Thirty nine volatile compounds were detected in black garlic Makgeolli.


  1. Seo DH, Jung JH, Kim HY, Kim YR, Ha SJ, Kim YC, Park CS. 2007. Identification of lactic acid bacteria involved in traditional Korean rice wine fermentation. Food Sci Biotechnol 16: 994-998.
  2. Kim SY, Kim EK, Yoon SJ, Jo NJ, Jung SK, Kwon SH, Chang YH, Jeong YH. 2011. Physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean traditional rice wine, Makgeolli, supplemented with cucumber during fermentation. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 40: 223-228.
  3. Kim YJ, Han YS. 2006. The use of Korean traditional liquors and plan for encouraging it. Korean J Food Culture 21: 31-41.
  4. Lee SJ, Kwon YH, Kim HR, Ahn BH. 2007. Chemical and sensory characterization of Korean commercial rice wines (Yakju). Food Sci Biotechnol 16: 374-380.
  5. Lee MY, Sung SY, Kang HK, Byun HS, Jung SM, Song JH, Lee JS. 2010. Quality characteristics and physiological functionality of traditional rice wines in Chungnam province of Korea. Kor J Microbiol Biotechnol 38: 177-182.
  6. Jeon BY, Seo HN, Yun A, Lee IH, Park DH. 2010. Effect of glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) on Nuruk-making process and Makgeolli quality. Food Sci Biotechnol 19: 999-1004.
  7. Lee SS, Kim KS, Eom AH, Sung CK, Hong IP. 2002. Production of Korean traditional rice-wines made from cultures of the single fungal isolates under laboratory conditions. Korean J Mycol 30: 61-65.
  8. Han EH, Lee TS, Noh BS, Lee DS. 1997. Quality characteristics of mash of Takju prepared by using different Nuruk during fermentation. Korean J Food Sci Technol 29: 555-562.
  9. Lee DH, Kim JH, Lee JS. 2009. Effect of pears on the quality and physiological functionality of Makgeoly. Korean J Food & Nutr 22: 606-611.
  10. Lee HH, Lee JH, Ko YJ, Park MH, Lee JO, Ryu CH. 2009. Changes in allergenicity and quality of Nuruk during fermentation. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 38: 76-82.
  11. Kim JH, Lee DH, Lee SH, Choi SY, Lee JS. 2004. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on the quality and functionality of Korean traditional rice wine, Yakju. J Biosci Bioeng 97: 24-28.
  12. Cho EK, Kim HY, Byeon HJ, Kim SW, Choi YJ. 2010. Nitrite scavenging and alcohol metabolizing activities of hot water extract from Makgeoly and its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect. J Life Sci 20: 768-774.
  13. Borek C. Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract. 2001. J Nutr 131: 1010S-1015S.
  14. Kyo E, Uda N, Kasuga S, Itakura Y. 2001. Immunomodulatory effects of aged garlic extract. J Nutr 131: 1075S-1079S.
  15. Woo KS, Ko JY, Song SB, Lee JS, Oh BG, Kang JR, Nam MH, Ryu IS, Jeong HS, Seo MC. 2010. Physicochemical characteristics of Korean traditional wines prepared by addition of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) using different Nuruks. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 39: 548-553.
  16. KFDA. 2010. Code food. Korea Food and Drug Association. Seoul, Korea.
  17. Kerem Z, Bravdo B, Shoseyov O, Tugendhaft Y. 2007. Rapid liquid chromatography-ultraviolet determination of organic acids and phenolic compounds in red wine and must. J Chromatogr A 1052: 211-215.
  18. Jin J, Kim SY, Jin Q, Eom HJ, Han NS. 2008. Diversity analysis of lactic acid bacteria in Takju, Korean rice wine. J Microbiol Biotechnol 18: 1678-1682.
  19. Kim JY, Sung KW, Bae HW, Yi YH. 2007. pH, acidity, color, reducing sugar, total sugar, alcohol and organoleptic characteristics of puffed rice powder added Takju during fermentation. Korean J Food Sci Technol 39: 266-271.
  20. Lee TJ, Hwang DY, Lee CY, Son HJ. 2009. Changes in yeast cell number, total acid and organic acid during production and distribution processes of Makgeolli, traditional alcohol of Korea. Korean J Microbiol 45: 391-396.
  21. Park CS, Oh EH, Jeong HS, Yoon HS. 2009. Quality characteristics of the germinated brown rice wine added with red pepper. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 38: 1090-1096.
  22. Rhee SJ, Lee CYJ, Kim KK, Lee CH. 2003. Comparison of the traditional (Samhaeju) and industrial (Chongju) rice wine brewing in Korea. Food Sci Biotechnol 12: 242-247.
  23. Park CS, Lee TS. 2002. Quality characteristics of Takju prepared by wheat flour Nuruks. Korean J Food Sci & Technol 34: 296-302.
  24. Kwon YH, Jo SJ, Kim HR, Lee HJ, Kim JH, Ahn BH. 2009. Physicochemical properties and volatile compounds in Jeonju Moju. Korean J Food Sci Technol 41: 503-508.
  25. Shin SY, Suh SH, Cho WD, Lee HK, Hwang HJ. 2003. Analysis of volatile components in Korean rice wine by the addition of Yulmoo. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 32: 1206-1213.
  26. Lee HS, Park CS, Choi JY. 2010. Quality characteristics of the mashes of Takju prepared using different yeasts. Korean J Food Sci Technol 42: 56-62.

피인용 문헌

  1. Detection of 1,4-Dihydroxy-2-Naphthoic Acid from Commercial Makgeolli Products vol.17, pp.1, 2012,