Distribution of Larvae of the Common Squid Todarodes pacificus in the Northern East China Sea

동중국해 북부해역에서의 살오징어(Todarodes pacificus) 유생의 분포

  • Received : 2011.03.11
  • Accepted : 2011.06.08
  • Published : 2011.06.30


The common squid Todarodes pacificus is an ecologically and commercially important species in Korea and Japan. However, the distribution pattern of its eggs and larvae in Korean waters has not yet been clarified. To determine the horizontal and temporal distribution of common squid larvae in the northern East China Sea, samples collected using paired, 60 cm diameter Bongo nets from the three surveys conducted in August 2003, May 2004 and November 2005 were examined. In addition, the vertical distribution was examined from the samples collected using a $1\;m^2$ MOCNESS in April 1999 (20 m interval down to 100 m). A total of 218 larvae ranging in mantle length (ML) from 1.2 to 17.0 mm were counted at 27 stations. Larval abundance was highest in May 2004. The larvae mainly occurred in the southeastern area of Jeju Island, where the water temperature and salinity at 50 m deep ranged from $15-23^{\circ}C$ and 34-34.6 psu, respectively. Most larvae were collected in the frontal zone, where the Tsushima Warm Current and inshore waters meet. The results from the MOCNESS samples showed that the larvae occurred mostly in 20-80 m depth ranges (about 90%), although collections were only conducted above 100 m. No significant differences in larval mantle lengths (ANOVA, P>0.05) were found among each depth interval. Given the occurrence sites of the larvae <2.0 mm ML, the spawning ground of this species appears to be within the northern East China Sea, mainly to the southeast and northeast of Jeju Island, in early spring.


Common squid;Distribution;Northern East China Sea;Larvae


  1. Baek HJ, Kim JW, Cho YJ and Kim S. 2006. Sexual Maturity and Reproductive Cycle of the Common Squid Todarodes pacificus in the East Sea of Korea. J Kor Fish Soc 39, 472-479.
  2. Bower JR, Nakamura Y, Mori K, Yamamoto J, Isoda T, and Sakurai Y. 1999. Distribution of Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) paralarvae near the Kuroshio off southern Kyushu, Japan. Mar Biol 135, 99-106.
  3. Bower JR, Sakurai Y. 1996. Laboratory observations on Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) egg masses. Amer Malac Bull 13, 65-71.
  4. Choi KH, Hwang SD and Kim JI. 1997. Fishing conditions of common squid (Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup) in Korean waters. I. Spatio-temporal distribution of common squid related to the changes in oceanographic condition. J Kor Fish Soc 30, 513-522
  5. Choi KH, Cho KD, Kim DS, Kim JI and Kim SW. 2003. Fishing conditions of common Squid (Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup) in the Yellow Sea. J Kor Soc Fish Res 6, 21-31.
  6. Choi KH, Lee CI, Hwang KS, Kim SW, Park JH and Gong Y. 2008. Distribution and migration of Japanese common squid, Todarodes pacificus, in the southwestern part of the East (Japan) Sea. Fish Res 91, 281-290.
  7. FAO. 2010. FishStat Plus (for fisheries statistical time series). Retrieved from on November 10.
  8. Goto T. 2002. Paralarval distribution of Ommastrephid squid Todarodes pacificus during fall in the southern Sea of Japan, and its implication for locating spawning grounds. Bull Mar Sci 71, 299-312.
  9. Hayashi S. 1991. Seasonal changes in distribution of eggs and paralarvae of Cephalopoda in Toyama Bay, the Japan Sea. Bull Jap Soc Fish Oceanogr 55, 315-322
  10. Kang YS, Kim JY, Kim HG and Park JH. 2002. Long-term changes in zooplankton and its relationship with squid, Todarodes Pacificus, catch in Japan/East Sea. Fish Oceanogr 11, 337-346.
  11. Kang YJ, Kim YH, Hong YK, Park JY and Park KY. 1996. A population genetic analysis of the common Squid, Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup in the Korean waters. J Kor Fish Soc 29, 320-331.
  12. Kim MJ, 1993. Age and growth of the common squid, Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup, from statolith. M.D. Thesis, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea.
  13. Kim YH and Kang YJ. 1995. Population analysis of the common squid, Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup in Korean Waters-1. Separation of population. J Kor Fish Soc 28, 163-173.
  14. Lee CI, 2007. Influences of Climate Factors and Water Temperature in Squid Spawning Grounds on Japanese Common Squid (Todarodes pacificus) Catches in the East (Japan) Sea. J Fish Sci Technol 10, 150-158.
  15. Murata M. 1989. Population assessment, management and fishery forecasting for the Japanese common squid, Todarodes pacificus. In: Marine invertebrate fisheries: Their assessment and management. Caddy JR, ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, U.S.A., 613-636.
  16. Okutani T. 1965. Studies on early life history of decapodan mollusca-I. A synoptic report on rhynchoteuthion larvae of Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup. Bull Tokai Reg Fish Res Lab 41, 25-29.
  17. Okutani T. 1968. Studies on early life history of decapodan mollusca-III. System atics and distribution of larvae of decapoda cephalopods collected from the sea surface on the Pacific coast of Japan, 1960-1965. Bull Tokai Reg Fish Res Lab 55, 9-57.
  18. Okutani T. 1969. Studies on early life history of decapodan mollusca-IV. Squid larvae collected by oblique hauls of larva net from the pacific coast of eastern Honshu, during the winter seasons, 1965-1968. Bull Tokai Reg Fish Res Lab 58, 83-96.
  19. Okutani T. 1983. Todarodes pacificus. In: Cephalopod life cycles. Boyle PR, ed. vol 1 Academic, London, U.K., 201-214
  20. Okutani T and Watanabe T. 1983. Stock assessment by larval surveys of the winter population of Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae), with a review of early works. Bio Oceanogra 2, 401-431.
  21. Park JH, Choi KH and Lee JH. 1992. A study on the prediction of fishing conditions of common squid Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup in the Eastern Korea Sea. Bull Kor Fish Sco 28, 327-336.
  22. Roper CFE, Sweeny MJ and Nauen CE. 1984. Family Ommastrephidae. In: FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 3. Cephalopods of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, Rome, Italy, 156-186.
  23. Sakurai Y, Bower JR, Nakamura Y, Yamamoto S, and Watanabe K. 1996. Effect of temperature on development and survival of Todarodes Pacificus embryos and paralarvae. Amer Mal Bull 13, 89-95.
  24. Sakurai Y, Kiyofuji H, Saitoh S, Goto T, and Hiyama Y. 2000. Changes in inferred spawning areas of Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopoa: Ommastrephidae) due to changing environmental conditions. ICES J Mar Sci 57, 24-30.
  25. Shigeno S, Kidokoro H, Goto T, Tsuchiya K and Segawa S. 2001. Early ontogeny of the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) with special reference to its characteristic morphology and ecological significance. Zool Sci 18, 1011-1026.
  26. Shojima, Y. 1972. The Common Squid, Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup, in the East China Sea-II. Eggs, larvae and spawning ground. Bulletin of Seikai Reg Fish Res Lab 42, 25-58.
  27. Song HJ, Baeck GW, Kim S and Huh SH. 2006. Feeding habits of Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopods: Ommastrephidae) in the coastal waters of Busan, Korea. J Kor Fish Soc 39, 42-48.
  28. Tanaka, Y. 1988. Ecology of Japanese flying squid, Todarodes pacificus (Steenstrup), in northern Hokkaido waters, I. Juveniles found in the stomach of masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou (Brevoort), in winter. Sci Rep Hokkaido Fish Exp Stat 30, 19-23.
  29. Watanabe K, Sakurai Y, Segawa S and Okutani T. 1996. Development of the ommastrephid squid Todarodes pacificus, from fertilized egg to rhynchoteuthion paralarvae. Amer Malac Bull 13, 73-88.
  30. Watanabe T. 1965. Ecological distribution of rhynchoteution larva of common squid, Todarodes pacificus Steenstrup, in the southeastern waters off Japan during the winters, 1959-1962. Bull Tokai Reg Fish Res Lab 43, 1-12.
  31. Wormuth JH, O'Dor RK, Balch N, Dunning MC, Forch EC, Harman RF and Rowell TW. 1992. OMMASTREPHIDAE. In: "Larval" and juvenile cephalopods: A Manual for Their Identification. Sweeney MJ, Roper CFE, Mangold KM, Clark MR, and Boletzky SV, eds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 105-119.
  32. Yamamoto, J, Masuda S, Miyashita K, Uji R and Sakurai Y. 2002. Investigation of the early stage of the ommastrephid squid Todarodes pacificus near the Oki Isalnd (Sea of Japan). Bull Mar Sci 71, 987-992.
  33. Yamamoto J, Shimura T, Uji R, Masuda S, Watanabe S and Sakurai Y. 2007. Vertical distribution of Todarodes pacificus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) paralarvae near the Oki Island, southwestern Sea of Japan. Mar Biol 153, 7-13.

Cited by

  1. Understanding interannual variability in the distribution of, and transport processes affecting, the early life stages of Todarodes pacificus using behavioral-hydrodynamic modeling approaches vol.138, 2015,
  2. Distribution of the Common Squid Todarodes pacificus Paralavae in the Southern Coastal Waters in the East Sea in August and September 2013 vol.19, pp.3, 2014,
  3. Seasonal Characteristics of Todarodes pacificus Paralarval Distribution in the Northern East China Sea vol.47, pp.1, 2014,
  4. Distribution of Water Temperature and Common Squid Todarodes pacificus Paralavae around Korean Waters in 2013, 2014 vol.22, pp.1, 2016,


Grant : 기후변화가 남해역 (남해 및 북부 동중국해) 해양생태계에 미치는 영향 평가 시범 연구

Supported by : 한국해양연구원