Chemical Cleaning of Iron Stains on Ceramics

화학세척제를 이용한 도자기의 철산화물 제거 특성 연구

  • Park, Dae-Woo (Restoration Technology Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage) ;
  • Jang, Sung-Yoon (Restoration Technology Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage) ;
  • Nam, Byeong-Jik (Restoration Technology Division, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage) ;
  • Ham, Chul-Hee (Conservation Science Center, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage) ;
  • Lim, Seong-Tae (Underwater Excavation&Conservation Division, National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage)
  • 박대우 (국립문화재연구소 복원기술연구실) ;
  • 장성윤 (국립문화재연구소 복원기술연구실) ;
  • 남병직 (국립문화재연구소 복원기술연구실) ;
  • 함철희 (국립문화재연구소 보존과학센터) ;
  • 임성태 (국립해양문화재연구소 수중발굴과)
  • Received : 2011.08.06
  • Accepted : 2011.11.17
  • Published : 2011.12.20


To remove metal stains of the ceramics, chemical cleaning is essential case by case. This study investigated the removal characteristics of iron stains by oxalic acid and citric acid including their application methods of soaking and poultice. The soaking method in cleaning agents showed removal process by color difference and released iron contents from iron stains on ceramics. Iron stains were removed successfully from ceramics, which soaked in oxalic acid for 60 hours. However, it is recommendable to soak in 0.25M oxalic acid for one to three hours because most iron stains were disappeared in 3 hours soaking. Citric acid is less effective than oxalic acid in removing iron stains because of heavy molecular weight and low acidity. Poultices (bentonite, sepiolite, activated carbon fiber and celite) with oxalic acid were applied on contaminated ceramics. After ten hours, iron stains on ceramics were removed successfully by poultice. Among them, bentonite and sepiolite have better application. Therefore, sepiolite with 0.25M oxalic acid was applied on the iron stains of whiteware and celadon from Ma Island, and then stains were removed. However, it is judged that the application methods can be varied according to the form and depth of contaminant. In addition, the residues of poultice on the ceramics will be considered for preventing contamination.


  1. 박대우, 강현미, 남병직, 장성윤, "토기 및 도자기 유물에 사용되는 보존처리용 세척제의 안정성 평가". 보존과학회지, 25, p451-464, (2009).
  2. 함철희, "도자기 표면 금속오염물 제거에 관한 연구 ". 한서대학교 석사학위논문, p47-48, (2007).
  3. 강석인, 박영환, 박관후, 유동용, 문보배, 이호연, 위광철, "도 자기 표면이물질 제거방법 연구". 한국문화재보존과학회 제33회 춘계학술대회 발표논문집, p93-94, (2011).
  4. Susan Buys, Victoria Oakley, "The Conservation and Restoration of Ceramics". Butterworths; London, p74-98, (1993).
  5. Henry W.M., hodges, "In situ-archaeological conservation: proceedings of metings April, 1886, Mexico". Institute national de antropologiae historia, Maxico city, Mexico, and the Getty conservation institute, Los Angeles, California, p114-149, (1987).
  6. Olive, J. and Pearson, C. "The Conservation Of Ceramics From Marine Archaeological Sources", Conservation in archaeology and the applied arts, Preprints of the contributions to the Stockholm Congress, 2-6 June, p63-68, (1975).
  7. 김성규, 권경중, 이화영, 오종기, "Oxalic Acid에 의한 국내 저품위 고령토의 탈철에 관한 연구". 한국자원공학회지(현 -한국시스템공학회지), 34, p99-104, (1997).
  8. Niegel Williams, "Porcelain repair and restoration". 2nd Ed., University of Pennsylvania Press, p41-46, (2002).
  9. 이주완, "습포제를 이용한 석조문화재의 페인트 오염물 제거방법 연구 ". 공주대학교 석사학위 논문, p65-66, (2009).
  10. 김태석, 김명진, "비소와 중금속으로 오염된 광미의 정화: 토양세척에 의한 비소 제거". 대한환경공학회지, 30, p808-816, (2008).
  11. 문희수, "점토광물학 ". 민음사, (1996).
  12. Furukawa, M. and Tokunaga, S., "Extraction of heavy metals from a contaminated soil using citrate-enhancing extraction by pH control and ultrasound application". J. Environ. Sci. Health, PART A: Environ. Sci. Eng., 39, p627- 638, (2004).