Lithological Characteristics and Deterioration Diagnosis of Dosolammaaebulsang (Rock-carved Buddha Statue of Dosolam) in the Seonunsa Temple, Gochang, Korea

고창 선운사 도솔암마애불의 암석학적 특성과 손상도 진단

  • Park, Sung-Mi (Division of Conservation Science, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage) ;
  • Ryu, Keong-Seok (Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Sciences, Kongju National University) ;
  • Choi, Hee-Soo (Hanrim Conservation & Technology) ;
  • Lee, Chan-Hee (Division of Conservation Science, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage)
  • 박성미 (국립문화재연구소 보존과학연구실) ;
  • 류경석 (공주대학교 문화재보존과학과) ;
  • 최희수 (한림보존테크.공주대학교 문화재보존과학과) ;
  • 이찬희 (국립문화재연구소 보존과학연구실)
  • Received : 2010.12.07
  • Accepted : 2011.02.14
  • Published : 2011.03.20

Abstract

The rock-carved Buddha statue at Dosolam (Korea Treasure No. 1200) of the Seonunsa temple in Gochang is unique style sculptured on natural rock cliff of 13.0m height. The Buddha statue is composed of volcanic complex with tuff, dacitic tuff breccia, tuff bereccia and lithic tuff. Especially, the Buddha statue is characterized by hydrothermal alteration and fragmentation on the upper and lower part. As a result of damage diagnosis, exfoliation and detachment of physical weathering are high of 11.3% and 9.3%, respectively. Infrared thermography analysis, exfoliation and micro-cracks occurred in the measuring parts that have not been confirmed by naked eyes. Chemical index of alteration and weathering potential index of host rock for the Buddha statue are 55.16 to 64.01 and 6.14 to 9.92 which are represented within highly weathering degree. In surface, dark black, reddish brown and white discoloration are observed prominently in the lower. Brown discoloration 6.9% is highest. According to the P-XRF measurements, high concentration of Fe in common, in part of dark black discoloration was Mn, white and brown discoloration in part of S and Ca content were higher. Biological weathering that yellowish brown and dark gray crustoes lichenes appeared by 20.8% and 13.3%, respectively. Therefore, comprehensive deterioration rate of Buddha statue show physical damage by 21.2%, discoloration for inorganic contaminants by 10.8% and biological damage by 39.4%. Ultrasonic velocity measurement carried out of Buddha statue on the surface by 555 points. Measured value of ultrasonic velocity was about 2,273m/s(1,067 to 3,215m/s, and weathering coefficient is 0.5(0.4 to 0.8) that progress on MW(moderately weathered) to HW(highly weathered) grade of rocks.

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