DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Comparison of Nitrogen Metabolism in Yak (Bos grunniens) and Indigenous Cattle (Bos taurus) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

  • Wang, Hucheng (Institute of Rangeland and Yak Research, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University) ;
  • Long, Ruijun (Institute of Rangeland and Yak Research, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University) ;
  • Liang, Juan Boo (Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia) ;
  • Guo, Xusheng (International Centre for Tibetan Plateau Ecosystem Management Lanzhou University) ;
  • Ding, Luming (International Centre for Tibetan Plateau Ecosystem Management Lanzhou University) ;
  • Shang, Zhanhuan (Institute of Rangeland and Yak Research, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University)
  • 투고 : 2010.09.30
  • 심사 : 2010.12.20
  • 발행 : 2011.06.01

초록

The objective of the present study was to examine whether yaks possess any adaptive mechanisms of nitrogen (N) metabolism to survive in the harsh foraging environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. A grazing experiment on native alpine meadows was conducted to determine availability of herbage biomass and body weight (BW) change of yaks over the year, followed by two indoor feeding trials to investigate adaptation mechanisms of N metabolism in yaks fed at similar intake level to grazing conditions. Three castrated males of each of three genotypes; yak (Bos grunniens), indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) and their crossbred - cattleyak (Bos taurus male${\times}$Bos grunniens female), were used in the housed trials. Results showed that: i) Monthly herbage biomass production and daily grazing intakes by yaks over the year ranged from 220 to 4,664 kg DM per ha, and 1.90 to 8.50 kg DM, respectively. For about seven months each year, yaks suffer from malnutrition as a result of inadequate pasture conditions; ii) Urinary N excretion and N retention by yaks were significantly affected by feeding level, and yaks had a lower (p<0.05) average daily urinary N excretion (0.39 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$) and a greater (p<0.05) N retention (-0.09 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$) than indigenous cattle (0.47 and -0.16 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$, respectively). Fasting daily urinary N excretion was greater (p<0.05) for indigenous cattle than yaks (353 vs. 248 mg/kg $BW^{0.75}$). Purine derivative N excretion and purine derivative N index (PNI) increased with increasing feeding level, while the value of PNI was greater (p<0.05) for yaks and cattleyak (0.11 and 0.12, respectively) than for indigenous cattle (0.09) during the feeding trials. These results suggest that yaks could rely, in part, on the recycling of N to adapt to the harsh forage environment on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.), were used in the housed trials. Results showed that: i) Monthly herbage biomass production and daily grazing intakes by yaks over the year ranged from 220 to 4,664 kg DM per ha, and 1.90 to 8.50 kg DM, respectively. For about seven months each year, yaks suffer from malnutrition as a result of inadequate pasture conditions; ii) Urinary N excretion and N retention by yaks were significantly affected by feeding level, and yaks had a lower (p<0.05) average daily urinary N excretion (0.39 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$) and a greater (p<0.05) N retention (-0.09 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$) than indigenous cattle (0.47 and -0.16 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$, respectively). Fasting daily urinary N excretion was greater (p<0.05) for indigenous cattle than yaks (353 vs. 248 mg/kg $BW^{0.75}$). Purine derivative N excretion and purine derivative N index (PNI) increased with increasing feeding level, while the value of PNI was greater (p<0.05) for yaks and cattleyak (0.11 and 0.12, respectively) than for indigenous cattle (0.09) during the feeding trials. These results suggest that yaks could rely, in part, on the recycling of N to adapt to the harsh forage environment on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

키워드

Yak;Grazing Intake;Nitrogen Balance;Plasma Urea Nitrogen;Purine Derivative

참고문헌

  1. AOAC. 1984. Official methods for analysis. 14th edn. Association of Official Analysis Chemists, Washington, DC.
  2. Archibeque, S. L., J. C. Burns and G. B. Huntington. 2001. Urea flux in beef steers: effects of forage species and nitrogen fertilization. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1937-1943.
  3. Balcells, J., J. A. Guada, J. M. Peiro and D. S. Parker. 1992. Simultaneous determination of allantoin and oxypurines in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 575:153-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4347(92)80517-T
  4. Brun, B. J. 1996. Urea recycling in the rumen of dairy goats: effects of physiological stage and composition of intake. Small Rumin. Res. 23:83-90.
  5. Chen, X. B., D. B. Subba, E. R. Ørskov and M. C. N. Jayasuriya. 1998. Nuclear based technologies for estimating microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock: Purine nitrogen index, potentially a new parameter for rapid feed evaluation in ruminants. In: Proceedings of the second Research Coordination Meeting of a Coordinated Research Project (FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture) pp. 97-110.Vienna, Austria.
  6. Ferguson, J. D., D. J. Galligan and T. Neal. 1994. Principal descriptors of body condition score in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:2695-2703 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77212-X
  7. Gu, S., Y. H. Tang, X. Y. Cui, T. Kato, M. Y. Du, Y. N. Li and X. Q. Zhao. 2005. Energy exchange between the atmosphere and a meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Agric. Forest Meteorology 129:175-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.12.002
  8. Guo, S. C, P. Savolainen, J. P. Su, Q. Zhang, D. L. Qi, J. Zhou, Y. Zhong, X. Q. Zhao and J. Q. Liu. 2006. Origin of mitochondrial DNA diversity of domestic yaks. BMC Evol. Biol. 6:73-77. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-6-73
  9. Han, X. T., A. Y. Xie and L. H. Hu. 1990. Feed intake of growing yak. Chinese Qinghai J. Anim. Vet. 6:5-6.
  10. Han, X. T., L. H. Hu, A. Y. Xie, S. J. Liu and X. C. Bi. 1993. Study of energy metabolism of growing yak. Chinese Qinghai J. Anim. Vet. 10:13-16.
  11. Huntington, G. B., K. Magee, A. Matthews, M. Poore and J. Burns. 2009. Urea metabolism in beef steers fed tall fescue, orchard grass or gama grass hays. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1346-1353. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1444
  12. IAEA. 1997. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from purine derivatives in urine: A laboratory manual for the FAO/IAEA coordinated research program on development, standardization and validation of nuclear based technologies for measuring microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock for improving productivity, IAEA-TECDOC-945. Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. Austria.
  13. Landau, S. and B. S. Everitt. 2004. A handbook of Statistical Analyses Using SPSS. Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, Florida.
  14. Liang, J. B. and M. N. Samiyah. 1988. Comparative intake, digestibility and utilization of guinea grass by buffaloes and cattle. J. Mardi Res. 16:43-47.
  15. Liu, S. J., B. X. Chao, X. A. Yun and L. H. Hu. 1991. Determine of rumen fluid volume and flow speed of yak under housing condition. Chinese Qinghai J. Anim. Vet. 21:5-6.
  16. Long, R. J. 1995. Seasonal dynamics of nutrient metabolites in serum of grazing yak on alpine grassland. Ph. D. Thesis, Gansu Agricultural University, China.
  17. Long, R. J., S. O. Apori, F. B. Castro and E. R. Orskov. 1999a. Feed value of native forages of the Tibetan Plateau of China. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 80:101-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00057-7
  18. Long, R. J., S. K. Dong, X. B. Chen, E. R. Orskov and Z. Z. Hu. 1999b. Preliminary studies on urinary excretion of purine derivatives and creatinine in yaks. J. Agric. Sci. 133:427-431. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859699007169
  19. Long, R. J., D. G. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. Z. Hu and S. K. Dong. 1999c. Effect of strategic feed supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in yak cows. Prev. Vet. Med. 38: 195-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(98)00125-1
  20. Long, R. J., S. K. Dong, X. H. Wei and X. P. Pu. 2005. The effect of supplementary feeds on the BW of yaks in cold season. Livest. Prod. Sci. 93:197-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.08.016
  21. Long, R. J., S. K. Dong, Y. S. Wang, Y. R. Guo and J. Pagella. 2003. Concept and investigative methods of ruminant forage intake. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 5:8-17.
  22. Long, R. J. and Y. S. Ma. 1996. Qinghai's Yak production system. In: proceedings of conservation and management of Yak Genetic Diversity pp. 105-115. Kathmandu, Nepal.
  23. Marini, J. C. and M. E. V. Amburgh. 2003. Nitrogen metabolism and recycling in Holstein heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 81:545-552.
  24. Preston, R., D. Schnakenberg and W. H. Pfander. 1965. Protein utilization in ruminants: I. Blood urea nitrogen as affected by protein intake. J. Nutr. 86:281.
  25. Sarraseca, A., E. Milne, M. J. Metcalf and G. E. Lobley. 1998. Urea recycling in sheep: effects of intake. Br. J. Nutr. 79:79-88. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19980011
  26. Vasconcelos, J., L. W. Greene, N. A. Cole, M. S. Brown, F. T. McCollum and L. Tedeschi. 2006. Effects of phase-feeding of protein on performance, blood urea nitrogen concentration, manure N: P ratio, and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 84:3032-3036. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-711
  27. Wang, H., R. Long, W. Zhou, X. Li, J. Zhou and X. Guo. 2009. A comparative study on urinary purine derivative excretion of yak (Bos grunniens), cattle (Bos taurus), and crossbred (Bos taurus${\times}$Bos grunniens) in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2355-2362. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1544
  28. Wiener, G., J. L. Han and R. J. Long. 2003. The Yak. In: Alpine Rangeland Ecosystems and their Management in the Qinghai- Tibetan Plateau (Ed. R. J. Long). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 389-409.
  29. Xue, B., S. T. Cai, S. J. Liu, W. B. Wang and A. Y. Xie. 1994. Study on the protein requirement of growing yak. Chinese Qinghai J. Anim. Vet. 24:1-6.
  30. Zhou, H. K., L. Zhou, X. Q. Zhao, L. Wei, Y. N. Li, S. Song and X. M. Zhou. 2006. Stability of alpine meadow ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Chinese Sci. Bulletin 51:320-327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-006-0320-4

피인용 문헌

  1. Recovery and germinability of seeds ingested by yaks and Tibetan sheep could have important effects on the population dynamics of alpine meadow plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau vol.34, pp.3, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1071/RJ12010
  2. Nitrogen metabolism and recycling in yaks (Bos grunniens) offered a forage - concentrate diet differing in N concentration vol.52, pp.5, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN11208
  3. Yak Response to High-Altitude Hypoxic Stress by Altering mRNA Expression and DNA Methylation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors vol.26, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2014.1002563
  4. Comparative analysis of the microRNA transcriptome between yak and cattle provides insight into high-altitude adaptation vol.5, pp.2167-8359, 2017, https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3959
  5. Comparison of aquaporin-1 expression between yak (Bos grunniens) and indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau vol.57, pp.8, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15702
  6. Cloning of oligopeptide transport carrier PepT1 and comparative analysis of PepT1 messenger ribonucleic acid expression in response to dietary nitrogen levels in yak (Bos grunniens) and indigenous cattle (Bos taurus) on the Qinghai–Tibetan plateau1 vol.94, pp.8, 2016, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2016-0501
  7. Fatty acid profile of ghee derived from two genotypes (cattle–yak vs yak) grazing different alpine Himalayan pasture sites vol.58, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN16111