Effects of Fermented Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance and Serum Parameters in Ducks

  • Fazhi, Xu (College of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University) ;
  • Lvmu, Li (College of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University) ;
  • Jiaping, Xu (College of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University) ;
  • Kun, Qian (Anhui Animal Biological Engineering Technology Research Center) ;
  • Zhide, Zhang (Anhui Taiyang Poultry CO., LTD) ;
  • Zhangyi, Liang (Anhui Taiyang Poultry CO., LTD)
  • Received : 2010.12.22
  • Accepted : 2011.02.28
  • Published : 2011.05.01


A trial was performed to study the effects of feeding a diet containing solid-state fermentation rapeseed meal (FRSM) replaced soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance and serum biochemistry parameters of ducks and then to determine the appropriate proportion of soybean meal replacement. The 75% rapeseed meal and 25% blood meal were mixed and inoculated with the Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis. Over the 21-day fermentation, isothiocyanates were reduced from 72.7 to 14.1 mmol/kg. A total of 1,280 fifteen-day-old Cherry Valley ducks were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments, 4 replicate groups of 80 ducks each for a 30-day feeding trial. In four treatment groups, fermentation rapeseed meal replaced soybean meal at 0, 33, 67 or 100%, respectively. Results showed that feed intake of ducks fed 100% FRSM was greater (p<0.05) than SBM and partial FRSM in both the finishing period (31-45 d) and entire feeding period (15-45 d). Daily gain increased gradually in the three treatment groups with augmenting FRSM over in the whole study period. In the growing period (15-30 d), compared with the SBM group, phosphorus and calcium content in serum from the FRSM group was improved (p<0.05). Total protein concentration was lower in ducks fed 100% FRSM than SBM and 33% FRSM (p<0.05). Concentrations of IgM were dramatically higher for animals fed 100% FRSM than in the SBM, 33% FRSM and 67% FRSM groups. In the finishing trail stage (31-45 d), only serum IgG content in 100% FRSM group was improved (p<0.05). Therefore, rapeseed meal fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis is a promising alternative protein source and fermented rapeseed meal can completely replace soybean meal in duck diet and potentially reduce the cost of duck production.


Duck;Growth Performance;Serum Parameter;Fermentation Rapeseed Meal;Soybean Meal


  1. Al-Asheh, S. and Z. Duvnjak. 1995. Phytase production and decrease of phytic acid content in canola meal by Aspergillus carbonarius in solid state fermentation. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 11:228-231.
  2. Bell, J. M. 1984. Nutrients and toxicants in rapeseed meal: A Review. J. Anim. Sci. 58:996-1010.
  3. Canibe, N. and B. B. Jensen. 2003. Fermented and non-fermented liquid feed to growing pigs: Effect on aspects of gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2019-2031.
  4. Cheng, D. L., K. Hosimoto and Y. Uda. 2004. In vitro digestion of sinigrin and glucotropeolin by single strain of Bifidobacterium and identification of digestive products. Food Chem. Toxicol. 42:351-357.
  5. Chiang. G., W. Q. Lu, X. S. Piao, J. K. Hu, L. M. Gong and P. A. Thacker. 2010. Effects of feeding solid-state fermented rapeseed meal on performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23:263-271.
  6. Choi, M. M. F., S. S. Shuang, H. Y. Lai, S. C. Cheng, R. C. W. Cheng, B. K. B. Cheung and W. M. Lee. 2004. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of total isothiocyanates in Chinese medicinal herbs. Anal. Chem. Acta. 516:155-163.
  7. Davis, G. S., K. G. Anderson and A. S. Carrol. 2000. The effects of long-term caging and molt of Single Comb White Leghorn hens of heterophil to lymphocyte ratios, corticosterone and thyroid hormones. Poult. Sci. 79:514-518.
  8. Ebune, A., S. Al-Asheh and Z. Duvnjak. 1995. Production of phytase during solid state fermentation using Aspergillus ficuum NRRL 3135 in canola meal. Bioresour. Technol. 53:7-12.
  9. Elangovan, A. V. S., V. S. Verma, V. R. B. Sastry and S. D. Singh. 2001. Effect of feeding high glucosinolate rapeseed meal to laying Japanese Quail. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1304-1307.
  10. Feng, J., X. Liu, Z. R. Xu, Y. Y. Liu and Y. P. Lu. 2007. Effects of Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 fermented soybean meal on growth performance and plasma biochemical parameters in broilers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 134:235-242.
  11. Lardy, G. P. and M. S. Kerley. 1994. Effect of increasing the dietary level of rapeseed meal on intake by growing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 72:936-942.
  12. Laudadio, V. and V. Tufarelli. 2010. Growth performance and carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets containing micronized-dehulled peas (Pisum sativum cv. Spirale) as a substitute of soybean meal. Poult. Sci. 89:1537-1543.
  13. Marczak, E. D., H. Usui, H. Fujita, Y. J. Yang, M. Yokoo, A. W. Lipkowski and M. Yoshikawa. 2003. New antihypertensive peptides isolated from rapeseed. Peptides 24:791-798.
  14. McNeill, L., K. Bernard and M. G. MacLeod. 2004. Food intake, growth rate, food conversion and food choice in broilers fed on diets high in rapeseed meal and pea meal with observations of the resulting poultry meat. Br. Poult. Sci. 45:519-523.
  15. Megias, C., J. Pedroche, M. M. Yust, M. Alaiz, J. Grion-Calle, F. Millan and J. Vioque. 2006. Affinity purification of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides using immobilized ACE. J. Agric. Food Chem. 20:7120-7124.
  16. Newkirk, R. W., H. L. Classen and R. T. Tyler. 1997. Nutritional evaluation of low glucosinolate mustard meals (Brassica juncea) in broiler diets. Poult. Sci. 76:1272-1277.
  17. Palander, S., M. Nasi and I. Ala-fossi. 2004. Rapeseed and soybean products as protein sources for growing turkeys of different ages. Br. Poult. Sci. 45:664-671.
  18. Rozan, P., C. Villaume, M. H. Bau, A. Schwertz, J. P. Nicolas and I. Mejean. 1996. Detoxification of rapeseed meal by Rhizopus oligosorus sp. T3: a first step towards rapeseed protein concentrate. Ind. J. Food Sci. Technol. 31:85-90.
  19. SAS Institute. 1996. SAS user's guide: Statistics. Version 7.0. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
  20. Svetina, A., I. Jerkovic, L. Vrabac and S. Curic. 2003. Thyroid function, metabolic indices and growth performance in pigs fed 00-rapeseed meal. Acta Vet. Hung. 51:283-295.
  21. Tripathi, M. K. and A. S. Mishra. 2006. Glucosinolates in animal nutrition: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 13:21-27.
  22. Verbiscar, A. J., T. F. Banigan, C. W Weber, B. L. Reid, R. S. Swingle, J. E. Trei and E. A. Nelson. 1981. Deotoxification of jojoba meal by lactobacilli. J. Agric. Food Chem. 29:296-302.
  23. Vig, A. P. and A. Walia. 2001. Beneficial effects of Rhizopus oligosorus fermentation on reduction of glucosinolates, fibre and phytic acid in rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal. Bioresour. Technol. 78:309-312.
  24. Wang, T., Y. M. Fu, J. L. Lv, H. S. Jiang, Y. P. Li, C. Y. Chen and C. M. Zuo. 2003. Effects of mini-peptides on the growth performance and the development of small intestines in weaning piglets. Anim. Husbandry Vet. Med. 6:4-8.
  25. Xue. Z. H., W. C. Yu, M. C. Wu and J. H. Wang. 2009. In vivo antitumor and antioxidative effects of a rapeseed meal protein hydrolysate on an S180 tumor-bearing murine model. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 73:2412-2415.

Cited by

  1. A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks vol.57, pp.1, 2015,
  2. fermented rapeseed meal on nutrient digestibility, growth performance and serum parameters in growing pigs vol.87, pp.4, 2015,
  3. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal vol.11, pp.4, 2016,
  4. Response of broiler chickens to dietary inclusion of fermented canola meal under heat stress condition vol.16, pp.4, 2017,
  5. Amino acid, phosphorus, and energy digestibility of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal fed to growing pigs1 vol.93, pp.6, 2015,