- Volume 35 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Characteristics of Absorption and Accumulation of Inorganic Germanium in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer
- Kang, Je-Yong (Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
- Park, Chan-Soo (Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
- Ko, Sung-Ryong (Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
- In, Kyo (Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
- Park, Chol-Soo (Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
- Lee, Dong-Yun (Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
- Yang, Deok-Chun (Department of Oriental Medicinal Materials and Processing, Kyung Hee University)
- Received : 2010.05.14
- Accepted : 2010.07.14
- Published : 2011.03.29
The characteristics of absorption and accumulation of inorganic germanium in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer were examined. In 4-year-old P. ginseng, the germanium content of the field soil increased with increased amounts and frequencies of inorganic germanium application, while chemical components of the soil, such as available phosphate and exchangeable calcium, potassium, and magnesium, decreased with the increased inorganic germanium application. In the 4-year-old P. ginseng, the germanium content was highest in the rhizome and increased in the order of stem, leaf, lateral root, and main root, suggesting that inorganic germanium was absorbed from the root and translocated to the stem and leaf via the rhizome. As for changes in ginsenosides in 4-year-old P. ginseng rhizomes, the contents of ginsenosides
- Goodman S. Therapeutic effects of organic germanium. Med Hypotheses 1988;26:207-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-9877(88)90101-6
- Arimori S, Watanabe K, Yoshida M, Magao T. Effect of Ge-132 as immuno-modulator. In: Immunomodulation by microbial products and related synthetic compounds: proceedings of an international symposium; 1981 Jul 27-29; Osaka, Japan. New York: Elsevier Science, 1982. p. 8-9.
- Lee ST, Lee YH, Lee HJ, Cho JS, Heo JS. Germanium contents of soil and crops in Gyeongnam province. Korean J Environ Agric 2005;24:34-39. https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2005.24.1.034
- Conner JJ, Shacklette HT. Background geochemistry of some rocks, soils, plants, and vegetables in the conterminous United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Offi ce, 1975.
- Yang LL, Zhang DQ. Direct determination of germanium in botanical samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with palladium-zirconium as chemical modifi er. Talanta 2002;56:1123-1129. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(01)00644-0
- Jeong SI, Han WS. Germanium (IV) content in the Korean Angelica keiskei Koidz. Korean J Med Crop Sci 1999;7:11-15.
- Kim JS, Kang TB, Lee HK. Extraction of organic germanium compound from garlic. Sangmyung Univ. Inst Nat Sci Ann Rep 2004;12:1-18.
- Schroeder HA, Balassa JJ. Arsenic, germanium, tin and vanadium in mice: effects on growth, survival and tissue levels. J Nutr 1967;92:245-252. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/92.2.245
- Lee ST, Lee YH, Choi YJ, Lee SD, Lee CH, Heo JS. Growth characteristics and germanium absorption of rice plant with different germanium concentrations in soil. Korean J Environ Agric 2005;24:40-44. https://doi.org/10.5338/KJEA.2005.24.1.040
Lee GP, Park HS, Won JH, Park KW. Effect of
$GeO_2$concentration on hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa). J Korean Soc Hortic Sci 2005;46:113-118.
- Han SS, Rim YS, Jeong JH. Growth characteristics and germanium absorption of soybean sprout cultured with aqueous solution of organogermanium. Agric Chem Biotechnol 1996;39:39-43.
- Yun HK, Zhang CH, Seo TC, Huang HZ. Development of techniques for the production of selenium and germaniumenriched Chinese cabbage and pepper. J Bio-Environ Control 2007;16:180-185.
Chang EJ, Oh HI. Effects of addition of inorganic germanium,
$GeO_2$on the growth, germanium and saponin contents of ginseng adventitious root in submerged culture. J Ginseng Res 2005;29:145-151. https://doi.org/10.5142/JGR.2005.29.3.145
- National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology. Analysis of soil and plants. Suwon: Rural Development Administration, 2000.
- The Korean Society for Ginseng. Analysis of Korean ginseng components. Seoul: The Korean Society for Ginseng, 2008.
- Jeollabuk-do Agricultural Research & Extension Services. Studies on improvement of functional components in watermelon. Suwon: Rural Development Administration, 2008.
- Kim BY, Jung BK, Choi JW, Yun ES, Choi S. Heavy metals in paddy soil of Korea. Korean J Soil Sci Fertil 1995;28:295-300.
- Klapcinska B, Chmielowski J. Binding of germanium to Pseudomonas putida cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 1986; 51:1144-1147.
- Marczynski B. Carcinogenesis as the result of the deficiency of some essential trace elements. Med Hypotheses 1988; 26:239-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-9877(88)90127-2
- Comparison of Trace Element, Metal, and Metalloid Contents in North and South Korean Plants vol.23, pp.6, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5322/JESI.2014.23.6.995
- Sphingomonas panacis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of rusty ginseng vol.108, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-015-0527-y
- Flavobacterium panacis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Panax ginseng vol.109, pp.9, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-016-0720-7
- Germanium in the soil-plant system—a review pp.1614-7499, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3172-y