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Arsenic Contamination of Polished Rice Produced in Abandoned Mine Areas and Its Potential Human Risk Assessment using Probabilistic Techniques

폐광지역에서 생산된 백미 중 비소오염도와 확률론적 기법을 이용한 인체 위해성 평가

  • Lee, Ji-Ho (Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Won-Il (Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Jeong, Eun-Jung (Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Yoo, Ji-Hyock (Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Ji-Young (Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Paik, Min-Kyung (Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Park, Byung-Jun (Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Im, Geon-Jae (Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Hong, Moo-Ki (Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration)
  • 이지호 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 김원일 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 정은정 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 류지혁 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 김지영 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 백민경 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 박병준 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 임건재 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부) ;
  • 홍무기 (국립농업과학원 농산물안전성부)
  • Received : 2011.01.12
  • Accepted : 2011.02.18
  • Published : 2011.03.31

Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the arsenic (As) contaminations in polished rice cultivated nearby abandoned mine areas, and to estimate the potential health risk through dietary intake of As-enriched polished rice in each age-gender population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The As contents in polished rice grown fifteen abandoned mine areas were analyzed. The average daily intake (ADD) as well as probabilistic health risk were estimated by assuming probability distribution of exposure parameters. The average total As concentration in polished rice was $0.09{\pm}0.06$ mg/kg with a range of 0.02~0.35 mg/kg. For health risk assessment, the ADD values in all age-gender populations did not exceed the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) of 2.1 ${\mu}g/kg$ b.w./day for inorganic As. Cancer risk probability (R) values were $2.45{\sim}3.28{\times}10^{-4}$ and $2.51{\sim}5.75{\times}10^{-4}$ for all age population and gender population, respectively. Particularly, the R value, $5.75{\times}10^{-4}$, for children less than six years old were estimated to be high. Hazard quotient (HQ) values were 0.23~0.31 and 0.11~0.33 for general population and age-gender population, respectively. CONCLUSION(s): The average R values assessed via intake of polished rice cultivated in abandoned mine areas exceeded the acceptable cancer risk of $10^{-6}{\sim}10^{-4}$ for regulatory purpose. Considering the HQ values smaller than 1.0, potential non-cancer toxic effects may not be caused by the long-time exposure through intake of As-contaminated polished rice.

Keywords

Abandoned mines;Arsenic;Cancer risk probability;Hazard quotient;Polished rice

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