- Volume 38 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
How to reduce short column effects in buildings with reinforced concrete infill walls on basement floors
- Bikce, Murat (Department of Civil Engineering, Mustafa Kemal University)
- Received : 2010.04.28
- Accepted : 2011.02.21
- Published : 2011.04.25
Band windows are commonly used in reinforced concrete structures for the purpose of ventilation and lighting. These applications shorten the lengths of the columns and, consequently, they are subject to higher shear forces as compared with those of hollow frames. Such short columns may cause some damages during earthquakes. Hence, these effects of short columns should be minimized by choosing the dimensions of the band windows properly in order to prevent serious damages in the structure. This can be achieved by taking into account the parameters that are crucial in causing short column effect. Hence, in this study, the effects of those parameters such as the widths and heights of the band windows, the number of bays and storeys within the frame, and the heights of storeys are examined. The effects of the parameters are analyzed using time history analysis. One of the important results of these analyses, is that, the widths of the band windows should be less than 60% of the clear span between the columns, whereas, their heights should be greater than 35% of the clear storey height in order to decrease the short column effects substantially during the design of the reinforced concrete structures.
- Al Chaar, G., Issa, M. and Sweeney, S. (2002), "Behavior of masonry - infilled nonductile reinforced concrete frames", J. Struct. Eng., 128(8), 1055-1063. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:8(1055)
- Asteris, P.G. (2003), "Lateral stiffness of brick masonry infilled plane frames", J. Struct. Eng., 129(8), 1071-1079. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2003)129:8(1071)
- Blume, J.A., Newmark, N.M. and Corning, L.H. (1961), Design of Multistory Reinforced Concrete Buildings for Earthquake Motions, Portland Cement Association, Chicago.
- Cagatay, I.H. (2005), "Failure of an industrial building during a recent earthquake in Turkey", Eng. Fail. Anal., 12, 497-507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2004.09.004
- Cagatay, I.H. (2007), "Investigation of parameters affecting short column effect in buildings", Sixth National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Istanbul.
- Cagatay, I.H., Beklen, C. and Mosalam, K.M. (2010), "Investigation of short column effect of RC buildings: failure and prevention", Comput. Concrete, 7(6), 523-532. https://doi.org/10.12989/cac.2010.7.6.523
- Committee 318 (1971), American Concrete Institute (ACI), Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-71), Detroit.
- Dowrick, D.J. (1987), Earthquake Resistant Design for Engineers and Architects, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
- European Committee for Standardization 223, Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance, Part 5: Specific Rules for Concrete Buildings, Brussels.
- Fardis, M.N., Bousias, G., Franchioni, G. and Panagiotakos, B. (1999), "Seismic response and design of RC structures with plan-eccentric masonry infill", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 28, 173-191. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9845(199902)28:2<173::AID-EQE810>3.0.CO;2-1
- Guevara, L.T. and Garcia, L.E. (2005), "The captive and short column effects", Earthq. Spectra, 21(1), 141-160. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1856533
- Gulkan, P. and Wasti, T. (1993), "Interaction between frame and infill: non-linear investigation", Turkish Civil Engineers XII, Book for Bulletins of Technical Congresses, Ankara, 39-52.
- Guney, D. and Boduroglu, M.H. (2006), "Effect of infill walls on the nonlinear tensile behavior of symmetric and asymmetric structures under earthquake effect", ITU J., 5, 165-174.
- Hendry, A.W. (1990), Structural Masonry, MacMillan Education Ltd., London.
- International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) (1973), Uniform Building Code, Whittier.
- Kakaletsis, D. and Karayannis, C. (2007), "Experimental investigation of infilled R/C frames with eccentric openings", Struct. Eng. Mech., 26(3), 231-250. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2007.26.3.231
- Klingner, R.E. and Bertero, V.V. (1976), "Infilled frames in earthquake-resistant construction", EERC Report No. 76-32, University of California, Berkeley.
- Paulay, T. and Priestley, M.J.N. (1992), Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings, Wiley, New York.
- Polyakov, S.V. (1956), On the Interaction Between Masonry Filler Walls and Enclosing Frame When Loaded in the Plane of the Wall, Translations in Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Ed. Cairns, G.L., Trans., Moscow.
- SAP2000 (2004), Integrated Software for Structural Analysis & Design, Computers and Structures Inc., California, USA.
- Sezen, H., Elwood, K.J., Whittaker, A.S., Mosalam, K.M., Wallace J.W. and Stanton, J.F. (2000), Structural Engineering Reconnaissance of the August 17, 1999 Earthquake: Kocaeli (Izmit) Turkey, PEER 2000/09, University of California, Berkeley.
- Stafford, S.B. (1966), "Behavior of square infilled frames", J. Struct. Div., 92(1), 381-403.
- Stafford, S.B. (1967), "Methods for predicting the lateral stiffness and strength of multi-storey infilled frames", Build. Sci., 2, 247-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/0007-3628(67)90027-8
- TEC-2007, Turkish Earthquake Code (2007), Specifications for Structures to be Built in Seismic Areas, Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Ankara, Turkey.
- Umehara, H. and Jirsa, J. (1984), "Short Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Columns Under Bidirectional Loading", J. Struct. Eng., 110(3), 605-618. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1984)110:3(605)
- Uzsoy, S. and Citipitioglu, E. (1972), "Influence of infill walls on building frames: an example from the may 12, 1971 earthquake in turkey", B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 62(5), 1113-1117.
- Wood, S., Stark, R. and Creer, S. (1991), "Collapse of eight story R/C building during 1985 Chile earth-quake", J. Struct. Eng., 117, 600-619. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1991)117:2(600)
- The effect of short columns on the performance of existing buildings vol.46, pp.4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2013.46.4.505
- Numerical modeling and seismic evaluation of masonry-infilled reinforced concrete frames retrofitted with carbon fiber–reinforced polymer wraps 2018, https://doi.org/10.1177/1369433217749768
- Comparative Capacity Assessment of CFRP Retrofit Techniques for RC Frames with Masonry Infills Using Pushover Analysis pp.2191-4281, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-018-3488-4