The behavior of lightweight aggregate concrete filled steel tube columns under eccentric loading

  • Elzien, Abdelgadir (College of Civil Engineering, Hohai University) ;
  • Ji, Bohai (College of Civil Engineering, Hohai University) ;
  • Fu, Zhongqiu (College of Civil Engineering, Hohai University) ;
  • Hu, Zhengqing (College of Civil Engineering, Hohai University)
  • Received : 2010.07.16
  • Accepted : 2011.08.17
  • Published : 2011.11.25


This paper consists of two parts; the first part describes the laboratory work concerning the behavior of lightweight aggregate concrete filled steel tubes (LACFT). Based on eccentricity tests, fifty-four specimens with different slenderness ratios (L/D= 3, 7, and 14) were tested. The main parameters varied in the test are: load eccentricity; steel ratio; and slenderness ratio. The standard load-strain curves of LACFT columns under eccentric loading were summarized and significant parameters affecting LACFT column's bearing capacity, failure mechanism and failure mode such as confinement effect and bond strength were all studied and analyzed through the comparison with predicted strength of concrete filled steel tube columns (CFT) using the existing codes such as AISC-LRFD (1999), CHN DBJ 13-51-2003 (2003) and CHN CECS 28:90 (1990). The second part of this paper presents the results of parametric study and introduces a practical and accurate method for determination of the maximum compressive strength of confined concrete core ($f_{max}$), In addition to, the study of the effect of aspect-ratio and length-width ratio on the yield stress of steel tubes ( $f_{sy}$) under biaxial state of stress in CFT columns and the effect of these two factors on the ultimate load carrying capacity of axially loaded CFT/LACFT columns.


lightweight aggregate concrete filled steel tube;load eccentricity;steel ratio;slenderness ratio;ultimate bearing capacity;composite construction


  1. AISC-LRFD (1999), American Institute of Steel Construction, "Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings Chicago (IL).
  2. Boyd FP, Cofer WF and McLean D (1995), "Seismic performance of steel-encased concrete column under flexural loading", ACI Struct. J., 92(3), 355-365.
  3. Bradford MA (1996), "Design strength of slender concrete-filled rectangular steel tubes", ACI Struct. J., 93(2), 229-235.
  4. Bradford MA, Loh HY and Uy B (2002), "Slenderness limits for filled circular steel tubes", J. Consty. Steel Research, 58(2), 243-252.
  5. CECS 28:90 (1990), Construction Standard Committee of China, "Chinese specification for the design and construction of concrete-filled steel tubular structures", Planning Publishing House of China Beijing. (in Chinese)
  6. Chapman, J. C., and Neogi, P. K. (1966), "Reseach on concrete filled tubular columns", Reports, progress to October 31, 1964 and April 30, 1966, Engineering structures laboratories, Civil Engineering, Imperial College, London, England.
  7. DBJ13-51-2003 (2003), "Technical Specification for Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Structures", Fuzhou University, Fujian Province. (in Chinese)
  8. Elchalakani M, Zhao XL and Grzebieta RH (2001), "Concrete-filled circular steel tube subjected to pure bending", J. Construct. Steel Research, 57(11), 1141-1168.
  9. Elremaily A and Azizinamini A (2002), "Behavior and strength of circular concrete-filled tube columns", J. Constr. Steel. Res., 58(12), 1567-1591.
  10. Fujimoto, T., Mukai, A., Nishiyama, I. and Sakino, K. (2004). "Behavior of eccentrically loaded concrete-filled steel tubular columns". ASCE J. Struct. Eng., 130(2), 203-212.
  11. Furlong RW (1967), "Strength of steel-encased concrete beam-columns", ASCE J. Struct. Div., 93(ST5), 113-124.
  12. GB/T228-2002 (2002), The People's Republic of China National Standard, "Metallic materials at ambient temperature tensile test method Beijing". (in Chinese)
  13. Ge HB and Usami T(1992), "Strength of concrete-filled thin-walled steel box columns: experiment", ASCE J. Struct. Eng., 118(1), 3036-3054.
  14. Ge HB and Usami T (1994), "Strength analysis of concrete-filled thin-walled steel box columns", J. Construct. Steel Research, 30(3), 259-281.
  15. Hajjar JF, Molodan A and Schiller PH (1998), "A distributed plasticity model for cyclic analysis of concrete-filled steel tube beam-columns and composite frames", Eng Struct., 20(4-6), 398-412.
  16. Han linhai and Yang youfu(2004), "Modern concrete filled steel tubular structures," China building industry Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
  17. Han LH, Yao GH (2003) "Behavior of concrete-filled hollow structural steel (HSS) columns with preload on the steel tubes". J. Constr. Steel. Res., 59(12), 1455-1475.
  18. Han LH and Zhao XL and Tao Z. (2001) "Tests and mechanics model for concrete-filled SHS stub columns, columns and beam-columns". Stee. Compos. Struct., 1(1), 51-74.
  19. Hu H-T, Huang CS, Wu M-H and Wu Y-M (2003), "Nonlinear analysis of axially loaded CFT columns with confinement effect", ASCE J. Struct. Eng., 129(10), 1322-1329.
  20. Huang CS, Yeh Y-K, Liu G-Y, Hu H-T, Tsai KC, Weng YT, Wang SH and Wu M-H (2002), "Axial load behavior of stiffened concrete-filled steel columns", ASCE J. Struct. Eng., 128(9), 1222-1230.
  21. Hunaiti Y.M. (1996). "Composite action of foamed and lightweight aggregate concrete". ASCE J. Materials in Civil Eng., 8(3), 111-113.
  22. Hunaiti et al. (2002). "Evaluation of the concrete contribution factor for composite sections with lightweight aggregate concrete under axial compression". J Pakistan journal of applied sciences., 2(10), 990-999.
  23. JI Bohai, Fu Zhongqiu, MA Jinghai, et al (2010), "Impact of eccentricity ratio on behavior of lightweight aggregate concrete filled steel tube columns under eccentricity compression". South East University (Natural Science Edition) J., 40(3), 624-629.
  24. Kitada T (1998), "Ultimate strength and ductility of state-of-the-art concrete-filled steel bridge piers in Japan", Eng. Struct., 20(4-6), 347-354.
  25. Kloppel, V.K. and Goder, W.,(1957) "An investigation of the load carrying capacity of concrete filled-steel tubes and development of design formula", Der Stahlbau, 26(1), 1-10.
  26. Knowles RB Park R (1969), "Strength of concrete filled steel tubular columns", ASCE J. Struct. Div., 95(ST12), 2565-2587.
  27. Liu, Song (2010). "Experimental study of lightweight aggregate concrete under multiaxial stresses". Zhejiang University-Science A, J. Appl. Phys. & Eng., J., 11(8), 545-554.
  28. Mander J. B., Priestley M. J. N., and Park R., (1988). "Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete" ASCE J. Struct Eng, 114(8), 1804-1826.
  29. M. Mouli and H. Khelafi (2007), "Strength of short composite rectangular hollow section columns filled with lightweight aggregate concrete", J. Eng. Struct., (29), 1791-1797.
  30. O'Shea MD and Bridge RQ (2000), "Design of circular thin-walled concrete filled steel tubes", ASCE J. Struct. Eng., 126(11), 1295-1303.
  31. Roeder CW, Cameron B and Brown CB (1999), "Composite action in concrete filled tubes", ASCE J. Struct. Eng., 125(5), 477-484.
  32. Schneider SP (1998), "Axial loaded concrete-filled steel tubes", ASCE J. Struct. Eng., 124(10), 1125-1138.
  33. Shams M and Saadeghvaziri MA (1997), "State of the art of concrete-filled steel tubular columns", ACI Struct. J., 94(5), 558-571.
  34. Shantung Zhong (2003), Concrete filled steel tubular structure, Qinghua University Press, Beijing.
  35. Sumei Zhang and Yuning Wang (2004), "Failure modes of short columns of high-strength concrete-filled steel tubes", China Civil Eng. J., 37(9), 1-10.
  36. Tomii M, Sakino K and Xiao Y. (1988), "Triaxial compressive behavior of concrete confined in circular steel tube". Trans Jap Concrete Inst J. (280), 369-76.
  37. Uy B (2000), "Strength of concrete filled steel box columns incorporating local buckling", ASCE J. Struct. Eng., 126(3), 341-352.
  38. Yang Y. F. and Han L. H. (2006), "Experimental behavior of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tubular columns". J. Constr. Steel. Res., 62(12) 1310-1324
  39. Zhang W and Shahrooz BM (1999), "Comparison between ACI and AISC for concrete-filled tubular columns", ASCE J. Struct. Eng., 125(11), 1213-1223.
  40. Zuobin Wei and XiliangLiu (1993), "The fundamental function studies of steel tube cover hoop ceramicist concrete", Proceedings of '93 China Steel's steel concrete composite structure Association 4th Annual Meeting, Guangzhou.

Cited by

  1. Bending behaviour of lightweight aggregate concrete-filled steel tube spatial truss beam vol.23, pp.8, 2016,
  2. Experimental Research on Seismic Performance of Four-Element Variable Cross-Sectional Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Laced Columns vol.250, 2017,
  3. Bending Performance of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete-filled Steel Tube Composite Beam pp.1976-3808, 2018,