Empirical modelling of chemically enhanced backwash during ultrafiltration process

  • Daramola, M.O. (Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University) ;
  • Adeogun, A.G. (National Centre for Hydropower Research and Development, PMB 1515, University of Ilorin)
  • Received : 2011.06.06
  • Accepted : 2011.08.18
  • Published : 2011.10.25


In this study, response of reversibility of membrane flux during chemically enhanced backwash (CEB) to changes in filtration time, filtration flux and coagulant concentration dosing during ultrafiltration (UF) process was investigated using a regression model. The model was developed via empirical modelling approach using response surface methodology. In developing the model, statistically designed UF experiments were conducted and the results compared with the model output. The results showed that the performance of CEB, evaluated in terms of the reversibility of the membrane flux, depends strongly on the changes in coagulant concentration dosage and the filtration flux. Also the response of the reversibility of membrane flux during CEB is independent of the filtration time. The variance ratio, VR << $F_{value}$ and $R^2$ = 0.98 obtained from the cross-validation experiments indicate perfect agreement of the model output with experimental results and also testify to the validity and suitability of the model to predict reversibility of the membrane flux during CEB in UF operation.


  1. Alklaibi, A.M. and Lior, N. (2005), "Membrane-distillation desalination: Status and potential", Desalination, 171(2), 111-131.
  2. Alves, A.M.B. and De Pinho, M.N. (2000), "Ultrafiltration for colour removal of tannery dyeing wastewaters", Desalination, 130(2), 147-154.
  3. Anunziata, O.A. and Cussa, J. (2008), "Applying response surface design to the optimization of methane activation with ethane over Zn-H-ZSM-5-11 zeolite", Chem. Eng. J., 138(1-3), 510-516.
  4. Box, G.E.P. and Wilson. K.B. (1951), "On the experimental attainment of optimum conditions", Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 13(1), 1-45.
  5. Box, G.E.P., Hunter, W.G. and Hunter, J.S. (1978), Statistics for Experimenters, Wiley, New York.
  6. Brendel, M., Bonvin, D. and Marquardt, W. (2006), "Incremental identification of kinetic models for homogeneous reaction systems", Chem. Eng. Sci., 61(16), 5404-5420.
  7. Cheryan, M. (1998), Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook, Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
  8. Cojocaru, C. and Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G. (2007), "Response surface modelling and optimization of copper removal from aqua solutions using polymer assisted ultrafiltration", J. Membrane Sci., 298(1-2), 56-70.
  9. Daramola, M.O., Betiku, E., Aransiola, E.F. and Adeogun, A.G. (2011), "Modelling of Hydraulic backwash during ultrafiltration process: a statistical approach", Ife Journal of Technology, in press.
  10. Devijver, P.A. and Kittler, J. (1982), Pattern Recognition: A Statistical Approach, Prentice-Hall, London.
  11. El-Halwagi, M.M. (1992), "Synthesis of reverse osmosis networks for waste reduction", AIChE J., 38(8), 1185-1198.
  12. Fababuj-Roger, M., Mendoza-Roca, J.A., Galiana-Aleixandre, M.V., Bes-Pia,A., Cuartas-Uribe, B. and Iborra-Clar, A. (2007), "Reuse of tannery wastewaters by combination of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis after a conventional physical-chemical treatment", Desalination, 204(1-3), 219-226.
  13. Fabiani, C., Ruscio, F., Spadoni, M. and Pizzichini, M. (1997), "Chromium (III) salts recovery process from tannery wastewaters", Desalination, 108(1-3), 183-191.
  14. Geisser, S. (1993), Predictive Inference: An Introduction, Chapman and Hall, London.
  15. Gonzalez, H., Rodriguez, A., Cedeno, L. and Ramirez, J. (1996), "Isomerization of C8 aromatics over Pt/mordenite catalyst. A statistical model", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 35(11), 3964-3972.
  16. Gryta, M. (2010), "Application of membrane distillation process for tap water purification", Membrane Water Treatment, 1(1), 1-12.
  17. Heijman, S.G.J., Vantieghem, M., Raktoe, S., Verberk, J.Q.J.C. and van Dijk, J.C. (2007), "Blocking of capillaries as fouling mechanism for dead-end ultrafiltration", J. Membrane Sci., 287(1), 119-125.
  18. Johnson, P.N. and Amirtharajah, A. (1983), "Ferric chloride and alum as single and dual coagulants", Journal American Water Works Association, 75(5), 232-239.
  19. Lau, W.J. and Ismail A.F. (2010), "Application of response surface methodology in pes/speek blend NF membrane for dyeing solution treatment", Membrane Water Treatment, 1(1), 49-60.
  20. Lazic, Z.R. (2004), Design of Experiments in Chemical Engineering, Wiley-VCH, Weinhein, Germany.
  21. Marcucci, M., Nosenzo, G., Capannelli, G., Ciabatti, I, Corrieri, D. and Ciardelli, G. (2001), "Treatment and reuse of textile effluents based on new ultrafiltration and other membrane technologies", Desalination, 138(1-3), 75-82.
  22. Marriott, J.I., Sorenzen, E. and Bogle, I.D.L. (2001), "Detailed mathematical modeling of membrane modules", Comp. and Chem. Eng., 25(4-6), 693-700.
  23. Marriott, J.I., Sorenzen, E. and Bogle, I.D.L. (1999), "Rigorous optimal design of a pervaporation plant", Proceedings Computer-aided design for 21st Century (FOCAPD 99), Brekenridge, Colorado, July 18-23.
  24. Moll, R., Veyret, D., Moulin, P. and Charbit, F. (2003), "Dean flow and production of drinking water by ultrafiltration", Proceedings of the 5th International Membrane Science and Technology Conference (IMSTEC 03), paper 037, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 10-14.
  25. Moll, R., Veyret, D., Charbit, F. and Moulin, P. (2007), "Dean vortices applied to membrane process: Part I. Experimental approach", J. Membrane Sci., 288(1-2), 307-320.
  26. Norton, J.P. (1986), An introduction to identification, Academic Press. Inc., London.
  27. Qi, R. and Henson, M.A. (1998), "Optimal design of spiral-wound membrane networks for gas separations", J. Membrane Sci., 148(1), 71-89.
  28. Reith, C. and Birkenhead, B. (1998), "Membranes enabling the affordable and cost effective reuse of wastewater as an alternative water source", Desalination, 117(1-3), 203-209.
  29. Serra, C., Clifton, M.J., Moulin, P., Rouch, J. and Aptel, P. (1998), "Dead-end ultrafiltration in hollow fiber modules: Module design and process simulation", J. Membrane Sci., 145(2), 159-172.
  30. Shaalan,H.F., Sorour, M.H. and Tewfik, S.R. (2001), "Simulation and optimization of a membrane system for chromium recovery from tanning wastes", Desalination, 141(3), 315-324.
  31. Turano, E., Curcio,S., De Paola, M.G., Calabro, V. and Iorio, G. (2002), "An integrated centrifugation-ultrafiltration system in the treatment of olive mill wastewater", J. Membrane Sci., 209(2), 519-531.
  32. Whitehead, P.G. (1979), "Application of recursive estimation techniques to time variable hydrological systems", Journal of Hydrology, 40, 1-16.
  33. Zondervan, E., Beltlem, B.H.L., Blankert, B. and B. Roffel, B. (2008), "Modelling and optimization of a sequence of chemical cleaning cycles in dead-end ultrafiltration", J. Membrane Sci., 308, 207-217.

Cited by

  1. Influence of operating variables on the transesterification of waste cooking oil to biodiesel over sodium silicate catalyst: A statistical approach vol.10, pp.5, 2016,
  2. Performance of Carbon Nanotube/Polysulfone (CNT/Psf) Composite Membranes during Oil–Water Mixture Separation: Effect of CNT Dispersion Method vol.7, pp.1, 2017,