Gender Differences in Factors Affecting Dietary Self-Efficacy in Fifth and Sixth Grade Elementary School Children

성별에 따른 학령기 후기 아동의 식이자기효능감 영향 요인

  • Received : 2011.09.27
  • Accepted : 2011.12.10
  • Published : 2011.12.30


Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify gender differences in predictors on dietary self-efficacy in fifth and sixth grade elementary school children. Methods: The data were collected by a questionnaire given to the 408 children between June 7 to June 17, 2011. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Results: There were gender differences in dietary self-efficacy, exercise self-efficacy, dietary practice and depression. Dietary self-efficacy had a significant positive correlation with exercise self-efficacy and dietary practice and negative correlation with depression for both girls and boys. The predictors of dietary self-efficacy for boy were exercise self-efficacy and dietary practice, these factors explained 37.1% of the total variance. In girls, exercise self-efficacy and dietary practice were significant predictors and explained 38.7% of dietary self-efficacy. Conclusion: Based on the finding of this study, it is needed to develop a nursing intervention for dietary self-efficacy in elementary school children including to promote exercise self-efficacy and dietary practice.


  1. Choi, S. J. (1998). Dietary self-efficacy & physical activity self efficacy among elementary school children. Unpublished master's thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul.
  2. Gu, J. O., Lee, J. W., Choi, Y. S., Kim, J. H., & Lee, J. H. (2006). Life cycle nutrition science. Seoul: Hyoil Publishing.
  3. Gu, M. O., Yu, J. S., Kweon, I. K., Kim, H. W., & Lee, E. O. (1994). A review of resear-ch on self e¨cacy theory applied to health related behavior. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 24, 278-301.
  4. Guy, S., Parcel, E. E., Cheryl, L. P., & Henry, A. F. (1995). Measurement of self-efficacy for diet-related behaviors among elementary school children. Journal of School Health, 65, 23-27.
  5. Han, M. S. (2007). E­ects of dietary habits, nutritional knowledge, dietary self-efficacy and the change of hematological characteristics after nutritional education primary 4th graders in Gyeong-Gi province in Korea. Unpublished master's thesis, Chung-Ang University, Seoul.
  6. Hermine, G., Soto, D., David, G., & Anderson, A. (1993). The curtain rises: rethinking culture, ideology, and the state in eastern europe. New Jersey: Humanities.
  7. Hochbaum, G. M. (1981). Strategies and their rational for changing people's eating habits. Journal of Nutrition Education, 13, 59-65.
  8. Hwang, I. J. (2006). Obesity index, dietary self-efficacy and nutrient intake of high-grade elementary school students. Unpublished master's thesis, Kyungpook National University, Daegu.
  9. Hur, H. K., Park, S. M., Kim, G, Y., Kim, C. B., Ahn, J. S., Song, H. Y., et al. (2003). A cross-sectional study of dietary habits and eating behavior among elementary, middle and high school students in Wonju city. Journal of Korean Society for Health Education and Promotion, 20, 159-172.
  10. Jang, H. S., & Hwang, I. J. (2006). Nutrient intake and physical activity self-efficacy of high-grade elementary school students according to obesity index. Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association, 18(4), 67-84.
  11. Lee, J. I. (2001). A study of obese children's self-efficacy and health promotion behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kyungsan University, Gyungsan.
  12. Lee, J. Y. (2001). A Study on the eff­ect of the nutrition education program on the dietary self-efficacy and dietary practice for elementary school children. Unpublished master's thesis, Korea University, Seoul.
  13. Li, N., & Kirkup, C. (2007). Gender and cultural differences in internet use: a study of China and the UK. Computer and Education, 48, 301-317.
  14. Ministry for Health and Welfare (2006). The third Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES III), 2005. - health examination -. Retrieved at September 22, 2011, from PAR_MENU_ID=03&MENU_ID=03030301&BOARD_ID=1003&BOARD_ FLAG=03&CONT_SEQ=39610&page=1
  15. Ministry for Health and Welfare (2010). Health at a glance 2009 OECD indicators. Retrieved at September 23, 2011, from
  16. Moon, S. H. (2008). Gender differences in eating disorders and risk factors in upper primary school children. Journal of Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing, 14, 361-369.
  17. Kang, H. K. (2006). Comparison of self-efficacy between normal weight and obese child. Unpublished master's thesis, Daegu University, Daegu.
  18. Kim, B. H., & Choi, J. H. (2009). Perceived body image, intentional caloric restriction and physical manifestations of unbalanced nutrition according to body mass index in fifth and sixth grade elementary school students. Journal of Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing, 15, 359-366.
  19. Kim, H. S. (2010). Analysis of longitudinal trend for adolescents' computer use: the impact of gender and socio-economic status. Asian Journal of Education, 11, 93-112.
  20. Kim, J. E. (2009). Relationships among nutritional knowledge, eating behavior and dietary self-efficacy of elementary school students in Busan province. Unpublished master's thesis, Dong-A University, Busan.
  21. Kawak, S. H. (2009). Analysis of self efficacy, dietary efficacy and exercise efficacy depending on gender type of the elementary school students. Unpublished master's thesis, Sangji University, Wonju.
  22. Oh, S. H. (2011). An analysis of dietary behavior-modifying factors among elementary school children. Unpublished master's thesis, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul.
  23. Park, H. J. (2010). The study on the eff­ect of nutrition knowledge of elementary school senior students on their dietary attitude, eating behavior and self-efficacy. Unpublished master's thesis, Inha University, Incheon.
  24. Park, J. I. (2008). Factor analysis of children's depression inventory -In a population of general children in a small city in Korea-. Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 47, 555-560.
  25. Rossner, S. (2001). Obesity through the ages of man. International Journal of Obesity, 25 (Suppl 4), S29-S33.
  26. Stewart, G. T., Russell, R. P., Marsha, D., Ruth, S., & Dianne, S. W. (1996). Gender differences in physical activity and determinants of physical activity in rural fifth grade children. Journal of School Health, 66, 145-149.
  27. Won, H. R. (2008). Relationships among eating behavior, dietary self efficacy and nutrition knowledge according to the perceived body shape of elementary school students in Gangwon provinces. Korean Journal of Community Living Science, 19, 707-719.
  28. Yu, M. J. (2009). The relationship between obesity index, body image, self-efficacy, and health promoting behavior. Unpublished master's thesis, Daegu University, Daegu.
  29. Yun, J. W. (2002). E­ects of nutritional knowledge, dietary attitude and dietary self-efficacy on the nutritional status of high school students. Unpublished master's thesis, Kosin University, Busan.