Depression Status of Academic High School Students in Seoul: Mediating Role of Entrapment

서울시내 인문계 고등학생의 우울 실태 및 속박감의 매개효과

  • Received : 2010.08.03
  • Accepted : 2011.10.24
  • Published : 2011.10.31


Purpose: Purpose of this study was to investigate the status of depression in academic high school students and path analysis model for exploring the mediating role of entrapment to depression in relation to academic stress and perceived social support. Methods: Measurements were four reliable questionnaires measuring academic stress, social support, entrapment, and depression. Data were collected from students in 17 high schools in Seoul. Results: Students (n=5,346) completing the questionnaires indicated depression & entrapment from academic stress. Depression was more prevalent in girls, those whose parents' household income was less than two million won, who did not live with father or mother or both due to divorce, separation, or death, and those who smoked or used alcohol. Entrapment was more prevalent in students similar to cases of depression and in seniors. According to the proposed path model, 48.6% of depression was explained by academic stress, social support, and entrapment. The indirect effect of entrapment as a mediator between academic stress and depression was verified and larger than the direct effect of academic stress on depression. Conclusion: Considering levels of depression and entrapment demonstrated by these students, better mental health programs with diverse strategies should be developed for their psychological well-being.



Supported by : 한국보건사회연구원


  1. Brown, G. W., Harris, T. O., & Hepworth, C. (1995). Loss, humiliation and entrapment among women developing depression: A patient and non-patient comparison. Psychological Medicine, 25, 7-21. doi:10.1017/S003329170002804X
  2. Cheon, S. H., & Cha, B. K. (2008). Inferiority, depression and psychosomatic symptoms in female adolescents: The mediating effect of perceived entrapment. Journal of Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing, 14, 343-351.
  3. Chun, K. K., & Lee, M. K. (1992). Preliminary development of Korean version of CES-D. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 11(1), 65-76.
  4. Craig, T., & Van Natta, P. (1978). Current medication use and symptoms of depression in a general population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 1036-1039.
  5. Dong-A Daily News. (2008, May 9). Korean adolescents with withered heart. Seoul: Author.
  6. Eom, T. W., Kang, M. J., & Choi, J. S. (2008). Gender differences of the stress, hopelessness, depression, suicidal ideation and social support in adolescents. Journal of Human Studies, 22, 5-30.
  7. Gilbert, P. (2006). Evolution and depression: Issues and implications. Psychological Medicine, 36, 287-297. doi:10.1017/S0033291705006112
  8. Gilbert, P., & Allan, S. (1998). The role of defeat and entrapment (arrested flight) in depression: An exploration of an evolutionary view. Psychological Medicine, 28, 585-598. doi:10.1017/S0033291798006710
  9. Gilbert, P., Gilbert, J., & Irons, C. (2004). Life events, entrapments and arrested anger in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 79, 149-160. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00405-6
  10. Han, M. H. (1996). A study on stress, perceived social supports, and behavior problems of children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Seoul National University, Seoul.
  11. Han, T. Y. (2005). Adolescents' stress at school: Moderation effects of personality and emotional intelligence. The Korean Journal of School Psychology, 2(2), 177-197.
  12. Hong, Y. S. (2004). The effects of life stress and self-esteem for adolescent suicidal behaviors. Studies on Korean Youth, 15(2), 153-182.
  13. Hong, S. O., Eum, K. S., & Bae, O. H. (2003). A study on social support and stress of adolescent. Korea Association of Family Relations, 8(1), 139-155.
  14. Joreskog, K., & Sorbom, D. (2001). LISREL 8: User's reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
  15. Kim, B. J. (2003). Influence of life stress and social support on school adjustment in junior highschool students. Unpublished master's thesis, DaeJeon University, Daejeon.
  16. Kim, S. (2010). The heterogenous developmental trajectories of adolescent depression and their predictors focusing on gender differences. Studies on Korean Youth, 21(1), 171-192.
  17. Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.
  18. Lee, K. S., & Kim, J .H. (2000). The effects of study stress coping training program on the reduction of study stress and the academic achievements of high school students. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 5(1), 43-59.
  19. National Youth Commission. (2007). White paper of Adolescents. Seoul: Author.
  20. Oh, M. H. (1993). Junior highschool students' work related stress factors and symptoms analysis and effects of meditation exercise on reduction of the work related stress. Unpublished master's thesis, KyungBuk University,Daegu.
  21. Park, E. S., Park, Y. J., Ryu, H. S., Han, K. S., Hwang, R. I., Im, Y. J., et al. (2005). A nationwide survey on current conditions of school health education. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 36, 381-388
  22. Polit, D. F., & Sherman, R. E. (1990). Statistical power in nursing research. Nursing Research, 39, 365-369.
  23. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401. doi:10.1177/014662167700100306
  24. Saban, A., & Flisher, A. J. (2010). The association between psychopathology and substance use in young people: A review of the literature. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 42(1), 37-47. doi:10.1080/02791072.2010.10399784
  25. Seoul Metropolitan Educational Office. (2005). Education statistics. Seoul: Author.
  26. Vaughan, C. A., Foshee, V. A., & Ennett, S. T. (2010). Protective effects of maternal and peer support on depressive symptoms during adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychiatry, 38, 261-272. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9362-9
  27. Vaux, A., Phillips, J., Holly, L., Thomson, B., Killiams, K., & Stewart, D. (1986). The social support appraisal (SS-A) scale: Studies of reliability and validity. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 195-219. doi: 10.1007/BF00911821
  28. Ministry of Health & Welfare. (2009, April 9). Support for depression screening and treatment for children & adolescents with ADHD. Seoul: Author.
  29. Wilner, P., & Goldstein, R. C. (2001). Mediation of depression by perceptions of defeat and entrapment in high-stress mothers. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 74, 473-485. doi:10.1348/000711201161127