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The Massive Blooms of Gonyaulax polygramma (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) in the Southern Coastal Areas of Korea in Summer, 2009

2009년 남해안 전역에 발생된 고니아룩스 적조에 관한 연구

  • Received : 2011.10.07
  • Accepted : 2011.12.06
  • Published : 2011.12.31

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the characteristics of the marine environment, including nutritional content, in order to clearly understand the outbreaks of Gonyaulax polygramma in the southern coastal areas in August, 2009. Samples were collected at 13 sites and water temperature and salinity were measured using a CTD. Field surveys were twice: the first between August 5-7, the second between August 22-24. The cell density of G. polygramma was 6,500-10,000 cells $ml^{-1}$ during the $1^{st}$ survey, whereas during the $2^{nd}$ survey the range of the cells was recorded from 8,000 to 12,500 cells $ml^{-1}$. Cochlodinium polykrikoides ranged from 0 to 105 cells $l^{-1}$ during the field survey. In water environments, the majority stations during the $1^{st}$ survey showed a nearly homogeneous water column below $1^{\circ}C$ in temperature, as well as similar profiles of salinity. However, the stratification between the surface and bottom was observed in the $2^{nd}$ survey. Regarding nutrients, Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) in the surface ranged from 0.144 to 0.236 mg $l^{-1}$ during the $1^{st}$ survey, and 0.082-0.228 mg $l^{-1}$ during the $2^{nd}$ survey. DIP (Dissolved Inorganic Phosphorus) did not show any difference in concentration between the $1^{st}$ and $2^{nd}$ survey. During August of 2009, the wind speed in the southern waters remained at around ${\leq}2\;m\;s^{-1}$ for about 60% of time, and there was very little precipitation during the month. Irradiance of ${\geq}10$ hr was shown in the late of August. It is thought that a low level of DIN and salinity play an important role as an essential factor for rapid growth, wide distribution and longer duration of red tide in G. polygramma.

Keywords

Gonyaulax polygramma;Red tide;Stratification;DIN;Salinity;Irradiation

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Fisheries Research and Development Institute

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