A Qualitative Study on the Teachers' Professional Learning Communities

교사의 전문성 개발을 위한 학습모임에 관한 질적 연구

  • Received : 2010.07.23
  • Accepted : 2010.09.02
  • Published : 2010.09.30

Abstract

Professionalizing the teaching workforce has been recognized as one of the primary factors to reforming public education. In response to this challenge, it has been emphasized that an educational leader's role is to support professional learning communities more effectively. Although the academia of educational administration has increasingly drawn the significance of a teacher's professional development, understanding of an educational leader's role and contribution to this effort is quite limited and unclear. This article examines what factors and barriers affect teachers' participation in professional learning communities from the voices and experiences of teachers. The analysis found 1) identification, 2) autonomous will, 3) practical solution for factors to participation and 1) lack of theoretical foundation, 2) financial burden, 3) insufficient time for barriers to participation. In conclusion, the author suggests the strategies for an educational leader who has an important role in developing a teacher's professionalism: 1) create a strong network of university professors and other experts for career advice, 2) make an institutional effort to stimulate teachers' motivation to learn; 3) decrease the teachers' workload, 4) build a synthesized and consolidated system to establish communities.

References

  1. Astuto, T., Clark, D., Read, A., McGree, K., & Fernandez, L. (1993). Challenges to Dominant Assumptions Controlling Educational Reform. Andover, MA: Regional Laboratory for the Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Island.
  2. Ball, D. L., & Cohen, D. K. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional education. In L. Darling-Hammond & G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice (3-32). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  3. Barth, R. (2000). Building a community of learners. Principals, 79(4), 68-69.
  4. Berry, B., Johnson, D., & Montgomery, D. (2005). The power of teacher leadership. Educational Leadership, 62(5), 56.
  5. Boyd, V. (1992). School context. Bridge or barrier to change? Austin, Texas: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  6. Bryk, A., Camburn, E., & Louis, K. S. (1999). Professional Community in Chicago elementary schools: Facilitating factors and organizational consequences. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35, 751-781.
  7. Caffarella, R. S. (1993). Self-directed learning. In S. B. Merriam(Ed.), An update on adult learning theory (25-35). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  8. Caine, R. & Caine, G. (1997). Education on the edge of possibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  9. Chubb, J., & Moe, T. (1990). Politics, markets and America's schools. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
  10. Clardy, A. (2000). Learning on their own: vocationally oriented self-directed learning projects. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11, 105-125. https://doi.org/10.1002/1532-1096(200022)11:2<105::AID-HRDQ2>3.0.CO;2-5
  11. Cohen, D. K., & Ball, D. L. (1990). Relations between policy and practice: A commentary. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 12(3), 249-256.
  12. Darling-Hammond, L. & McLaughlin, M. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604.
  13. Darling-Hammond, L. & Youngs, P. (2002, December). Defining "highly qualified teachers": What does "scientifically-based research" actually tell us?. Educational Researcher, 31(9), 13-25. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X031009013
  14. Dooner, A., Mandzuk, D., & Clifton, R. (2008). Stages of collaboration and the realities of professional learning communities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(3), 564-574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2007.09.009
  15. DuFour, R. (1999). Help wanted: Principals' who can lead professional learning communities. NASSP Bulletin, 83(604), 12-17. https://doi.org/10.1177/019263659908360403
  16. DuFour, R. (2004, May). What is a "professional learning community?". Educational Leadership, 61(8), 6-11.
  17. DuFour, R. and Eaker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work: Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Education Service.
  18. Firestone, W. A., Monfils, L. F., & Schorr, R. Y. (2004). The ambiguity of teaching to the test: standards, assessments, and educational reform. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erbaum Associates Publishers.
  19. Fullan, M. G. (1991). Professional development of educators. In M. G. Fullan, The new meaning of educational change (315-344). New York: Teachers College Press.
  20. Fullan, M. (1995). The limits and potential of professional development. In T. R. Guskey, & M. Huberman (Eds.), Professional development in education: new paradigms and practices (253-267). NY: Teachers College Press.
  21. Glickman, C., Gordon, S., & Ross-Gordon, J. (2001). Supervision and Instructional Leadership: A developmental approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  22. Gordon, S. (2004). Professional development for School Improvement: Empowering learning communities. Boston: Pearson.
  23. Green, R. & Etheridge, C. (2001). Collaboration to establish standards about accountability: Lessons learned about systemic change. Education, 121(4), 821-829.
  24. Hipp, K., Olivier, D., Huffman, J., Beaty, D., Pankake, A., & Moller, G. (2001, April). Learning about Learning communities: A case study approach. Proceedings from the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association.
  25. Henson, R. (2001). The effects of participation In teacher research on teacher efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 819-836. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00033-6
  26. Hollins, E. R., McIntyre, L. R., Debose, C., Hollins, K. S., & Towner, A. (2004). Promoting a self-sustaining learning community: International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 17(2). 247-264. https://doi.org/10.1080/09518390310001653899
  27. Hord, S. (1997a). Professional learning communities: What are they and why are they improvement? Issues about change, 6(1).
  28. Hord, S. (1997b). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  29. Hord, S., & Sommers, W. (2008). Leading professional learning communities: Voices from research and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
  30. Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  31. Karasek, R., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work: stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  32. Knapp, M. S. (2003). Professional development as a policy pathway. Review of Research in Education, 27, 109-157. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X027001109
  33. Kovalik, S. & Olsen, K. (1994). Integrated Thematic Instruction: The model. Kent, WA: Books for Educators.
  34. Kwakman, K. (2003). Factors affecting teachers' participation in professional learning activities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19, 149-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(02)00101-4
  35. Leithwood, K. (1992), The move toward transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 58(8), 75-77.
  36. Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D., & Steinbach, R.(1999). Changing leadership for changing times. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
  37. Little, J. W. (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers' professional relations, Teachers College Record, 91, 509-536.
  38. Little, J. W. (2001). Professional development and the pursuit of reform. In A. L. a. L. Miller (Ed.), Teaching as the learning profession. Handbook of policy and practice (233-262), San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
  39. Louis, K., & Kruse, S. (1995). Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
  40. Louis, K., & Marks, H. (1998). School-wide professional community. In F. Newmann (Ed.), Authentic achievement: Restructuring schools for intellectual quality (179-203). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
  41. Louis, K., & Marks, H. (1998, August). Does professional community affect the classroom? Teacher's work and student experience in restructuring schools. American Journal of Education, 106(4), 532-575. https://doi.org/10.1086/444197
  42. Merriam, S. B., & Caffarella, R S. (1991). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  43. McCotter, S. S. (2001). Collaborative groups as professional development. Teaching and teacher education, 17, 685-704. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00024-5
  44. McLaughlin, M. W., & Talbert, J. E. (2001). Professional communities and the work of high school teaching. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  45. Newman, F. M. (1996). Center on organizationa and restructuring of school: Activities and accomplishments, 1990-1996. Fiscal report. Madisions, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools.
  46. Printy, S. (2008). Leadership for teacher learning: A community of practice perspective. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44, 187-226.
  47. Putnam, R, & Borko, H. (2000). What do new views of knowledge and thinking have to say about research on teacher learning? Educational Researcher, 21(1), 4-15.
  48. Retallick, J, (1999). Teachers' workplace: towards legitimate and accreditation. Teacher and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 5, 33-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/1354060990050103
  49. Saphier, J. (2005). John Adams' promise: How to have good schools for all our children, not just for some Acton, MA: Research for Better Teaching.
  50. Scriber, J. P. (1999). Professional development: Untangling the influence of work context on teacher learning. Educational Administration Quarterly, 35, 238-266. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X99352004
  51. Smylie, M. A. (1995). Teacher learning in the workplace: Implications for school reform. In T. R. Guskey & M. Huberman (Eds.), New paradigms and practices in professional development (92-113). New York: Teachers College Press.
  52. Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (1999). The teaching gap: Best ideas from the world's teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York: Free Press.
  53. Supovitz, J. A., & Christman, J. B. (2003). Developing communities of instructional practice: Lessons for Cincinnati and Philadelphia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
  54. Sykes, G. (1996). Reform of and as professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 77, 464-467.
  55. Sweetland, S. (2001). Authenticity and sense of power in enabling school structures: An empirical analysis. Education, 121(3), 581-588.
  56. Vescio, V., Ross, D., & Adams, A. (2008). A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 80-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2007.01.004
  57. Wenglinsky, H. (2000). How teaching matters: Bringing the classroom back into discussions of teacher quality. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.