Aesthetics of Samjae and Inequilateral Triangle Found in Ancient Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock - Centering on Formative Characteristics of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan -

고대(古代) 마애삼존불(磨崖三尊佛)에서 찾는 삼재(三才)와 부등변삼각(不等邊三角)의 미학(美學) - 서산마애삼존불의 형식미를 중심으로 -

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun (Dept. of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design, Woosuk University) ;
  • Lee, Kyu-Wan (Dept. of Ornamental Horticulture, Youngsun High School) ;
  • Jang, Il-Young (Dept. of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design, Woosuk University) ;
  • Goh, Yeo-Bin (Graduated School of Landscape Architecture, Woosuk University)
  • 노재현 (우석대학교 조경도시디자인학과) ;
  • 이규완 (영선고등학교 관상원예과) ;
  • 장일영 (우석대학교 조경도시디자인학과) ;
  • 고여빈 (우석대학교 대학원 조경학과)
  • Received : 2010.08.17
  • Accepted : 2010.09.16
  • Published : 2010.09.01


This study was attempted in order to offer basic data for implementing and applying Samjonseokjo(三尊石造), which is one of traditional stone construction method, by confirming how the constructive principle is expressed such as proportional beauty, which is contained in the modeling of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock that was formed in the period of the Three States, centering on Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Susan. The summarized findings are as follows. 1. As a result of analyzing size and proportion of totally 17 of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock, the average total height in Bonjonbul(本尊佛) was 2.96m. Right Hyeopsi(右挾侍) was 2.19m. Left Hyeopsi(左挾侍) was 2.16m. The height ratio according to this was 100:75:75, thereby having shown the relationship of left-right symmetrical balance. The area ratio in left-right Hyeopsi was 13.4:13.7, thereby the two area having been evenly matched. 2. The Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan is carved on Inam(印岩) rock after crossing over Sambulgyo bridge of the Yonghyeon valley. Left direction was measured with $S47^{\circ}E$ in an angle of direction. This is judged to target an image change and an aesthetic sense in a Buddhist statue according to direction of sunlight while blocking worshipers' dazzling. 3. As for iconic characteristics of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan, there is even Hyeopsi in Bangasang(半跏像) and Bongjiboju(捧持寶珠) type Bosangipsang. In the face of Samjon composition in left-right asymmetry, the unification is indicated while the same line and shape are repeated. Thus, the stably visual balance is being shown. 4. In case of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan, total height in Bonjonbul, left Hyeopsi, and right Hyeopsi was 2.80m, 1.66m, and 1.70m, respectively. Height ratio in left-right Hyeopsibul was 0.60:0.62, thereby having been almost equal. On the other hand, the area ratio was 28.8:25.2, thereby having shown bigger difference. The area ratio on a plane was grasped to come closer to Samjae aesthetic proportion. 5. The axial angle of centering on Gwangbae was 84:46:50, thereby having been close to right angle. On the other hand, the axial angle ratio of centering on Yeonhwajwa(蓮華坐: lotus position) was measured to be 135:25:20, thereby having shown the form of inequilateral triangle close to obtuse angle. Accordingly, the upper part and the lower part of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Susan are taking the stably proportional sense in the middle of maintaining the corresponding relationship through angular proportion of inequilateral triangle in right angle and obtuse angle. 6. The distance ratio in the upper half was 0.51:0.36:0.38. On the other hand, the distance ratio in the lower half was 0.53 : 0.33 : 0.27. Thus, the up-down and left-right symmetrical balance is being formed while showing the image closer to inequilateral triangle. 7. As a result of examining relationship of Samjae-mi(三才美) targeting Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Susan, the angular ratio was shown to be more notable that forms the area ratio or triangular form rather than length ratio. The inequilateral triangle, which is formed centering on Gwangbae(光背) in the upper part and Yeonhwajwa(lotus position) in the lower part, is becoming very importantly internal motive of doubling the constructive beauty among Samjae, no less than the mutually height and area ratio in Samjonbul.


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