Effects of Microspraying of Water and Coating by White Materials on Fruit Sunburn Occurrence for 'Fuji'/M.9 Apple Tree

미세살수와 흰색 코팅제 도포가 '후지'/M.9 사과나무 과실 일소 발생에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2010.02.04
  • Accepted : 2010.06.24
  • Published : 2010.06.30


This study was carried out to compare and analyze control methods of the sunburn occurrence that affected 'Fuji'/M.9 planting systems in Korea from 2001 to 2003. It is very important to control temperature of the surface of fruits, because sunburn may occur when the temperature of fruit surfaces reaches $40^{\circ}C{\sim}45^{\circ}C$ due to high air temperature and sunlight during growing periods. As control methods of the sunburn occurrence, white coating materials such as $CaCO_3$ or kaolin were applied four times at two-week intervals from late June, and microspraying of water was conducted when air temperature was over $31^{\circ}C$ from late July to mid-August. Both methods were effective for preventing the sunburn occurrence and improving fruit quality by decreasing peel's temperature of fruits and increasing photosynthesis.


Malus domestica Borkh;$CaCO_3$;high temperature;microspraying of water;photosynthesis


  1. Blanke, M. M., 2008: Perspectives of fruit research and apple orchard management in Germany in a changing climate. Acta Horticulturae 772, 441-446.
  2. Corelli Grappadelli, L., 2003: Light relations. Apples; botany, production and uses, D. C Ferree and I. J. Warrington (Eds.), CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MA, USA, 195-216.
  3. Erez, A., and A. M. Glenn, 2004: The effect of particl film technology on yield and fruit quality. Acta Horticulturae 636, 505-508.
  4. Gindaba, J., and S. J. E. Wand, 2005: Comparative effects of evaporative cooling, kaolin particl film, and shade net on sunburn and fruit quality in apples. HortScience 40(3), 592-596.
  5. Gindaba, J., and S. J. E. Wand, 2008: Comparison of climate ameliorating measures to control sunburn on 'Fuji' apples. Acta Horticulturae 772, 59-64.
  6. Glenn, D. M., and G. Puterka, 2004: Particle film technology: An overview of history, concepts and impact in horticulture. Acta Horticulturae 636, 509-511.
  7. Glenn, D. M., E. Prado, A. Erez, J. McFerson, and G. J. Puterka, 2002: A reflective, processed-kaolin particl film affects fruit temperature, radiation reflection and solar injury in apple. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 127(2), 188-193.
  8. Glenn, D. M., G. J. Putreka, S. R. Drake, T. R. Unruh, A. L. Knight, P. Baherle, E. Prado, and T. A. Baugher, 2001: Particle film application influences apple leaf physiology, fruit yield and fruit quality. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 126(2), 175-181.
  9. Grange, M., S. J. E. Wand, and K. I. Theron, 2004: Effect of kaolin applications on apple fruit quality and gas exchange of apple leaves. Acta Horticulturae 636, 545-550.
  10. Iamsub, K., Y. Sekozawa, S. Sugaya, H. Gemma, and Y. Kamuro, 2008: Improvement of fruit quality by S-ABA and the fertilizer formulated K, P, Mg, Bo, Mn containing S-ABA as pre-harvest application on peaches and apples. Acta Horticulturae 804, 219-224.
  11. Iglesias, I., J. Salvia, L. Torguet, and R. Montserrat, 2005: The evaporative cooling effects of overtree microsprinkler irrigation on 'Mondial Gala' apples. Scientia Horticulturae 103, 267-287.
  12. National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service (NAQS), 2007: Investigation of actual condition on fruit tree. NAQS Press, Anyang, Korea.
  13. Palmer, J. W., J. P. Prive, and D. S. Tustin, 2003: Temperature. Apples; botany, production and uses, D. C. Ferree and I. J. Warrington (Eds.), CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MA, USA, 217-236.
  14. Parchomchuk, P., and M. Meheriuk, 1996: Orchard cooling with pulsed overtree irrigation to prevent solar injury and improve fruit quality of 'Jonagold' apples. HortScience 31(5), 802-804.
  15. Park, J. G., S. K. Kim, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Kim, and Y. U. Shin, 2004: Seasonal and daily patterns of xylem sap transportation in 'Fuji'/M.9 apple trees. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 22(3), 310-314. (In Korean with English abstract)
  16. Paulin, R., 1989: An apple production system for Western Australia. Acta Horticulturae 240, 109-114.
  17. Piskolczi, M., C. Varga, and J. Racsko, 2004: Areview of the meteorological causes of sunburn injury on the surface of apple fruit (Malus domestica BORKH). Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research 12, 245-252.
  18. Saudreau, M., A. Marquier, B. Adam, P. Monney, and H. Sinoquet, 2008: On the relationship between tree architecture, microclimate, and fruit temperature within a tree crown. Acta Horticulturae 803, 217-224.
  19. Schrader, L., J. Sun, J. Zhang, D. Felicetti, and J. Tian, 2008: Heat and light-induced apple skin disorders: Causes and prevention. Acta Horticulturae 772, 51-58.
  20. Schrader, L., J. Zhang, and J. Sun, 2003: Environmental stresses that cause sunburn of apple. Acta Horticulturae 618, 397-405.
  21. Schupp, J., E. Fallahi, and I. J. Chun, 2002: Effect of particle film on fruit sunburn, maturity and quality of 'Fuji' and 'Honeyscrisp' apples. HortTechnology 12, 87-90.
  22. Schupp, J., E. Fallahi, and I. J. Chun, 2004: Effect of particle film on fruit sunburn, maturity and quality of 'Fuji' and 'Honeyscrisp' apples. Acta Horticulturae 636, 551-556.
  23. Smit, A., W. J. Steyn, and S. J. E. Wand, 2008: Effects of shade netting on gas exchange of Blushed apple cultivars. Acta Horticulturae 772, 73-80.
  24. Song, Y. Y., M. Y. Park, S. J. Yang, and D. H. Sagong, 2009: Influence of air temperature during midsummer on fruit sunburn occurrence in 'Fuji'/M.9 apple tree. Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 12(4), 127-134. (In Korean with English abstract)
  25. Wand, S. J. E., K. I. Theron, J. Ackerman, and S. J. S. Marais, 2006: Harvest and post-harvest apple fruit quality following applications of kaolin particle film in South African orchards. Scientia Horticulturae 107, 271-276.
  26. Wunsche, J. N., J. Bowen, I. Ferguson, A. Woolf, and T. McGhie, 2004: Sunburn on apples-Causes and control mechanisms. Acta Horticulturae 636, 631-636.
  27. Yoon, T. M., and H. Richter, 1991: Stomatal conductance and leaf water parameters of apple, pear, sweet cherry and plum in an orchard. Gartenbauwissenschaft 56,75-81.