Ion Concentrations of Particulate Matter in Yongin in Spring and Fall

봄철과 가을철 용인지역 입자상 물질의 이온 농도

  • Received : 2009.12.30
  • Accepted : 2010.05.26
  • Published : 2010.06.30


Mass and ion concentrations of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ were measured in Yongin, downwind of the Seoul metropolitan area. Twenty-four hour average samples were collected daily for a month or so in spring and fall of both 2007 and 2008. Asian dust occurred twice in each period except in the fall of 2007. During the Asian dust period, nitrate in fine particles decreased since large amount of cations in coarse particles of Asian dust absorbed it. In spring 2008, sulfate as well as ammonium also increased in coarse particles. In spite of occasional Asian dust events, the influence of secondary formation was dominant over the period. Excessive ammonium over sulfate was enough to neutralize nitrate as well. High correlation coefficients between $K^+$ and sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium indicate a close relationship between secondary formation and biomass burning. Biomass burning and open burning are considered to be important sources of chloride.


$PM_{10}$;$PM_{2.5}$;Asian dust;Secondary formation;Biomass burning


  1. Akimoto, H. and H. Narita (1994) Distribution of $SO_2,\;NO_x\;and\;CO_2$ emissions from fuel combustion and industrial activities in Asia with $1^\circ{\times}1^\circ$ resolution, Atmospheric Environment, 28, 213-225.
  2. Baik, N.-J., T.-O. Kim, S.-J. Kim, Y.P. Kim, and K.-C. Moon (1994) Measurement and analysis of visibility and the characteristics of particles during the fall, 1993 in Seoul, J. Korean Air Poll. Control Assoc., 10, 32-40. (in Korean with English abstract)
  3. Choi, J.C., M. Lee, Y. Chun, J. Kim, and S. Oh (2001) Chemical composition and source signature of spring aerosol in Seoul, Korea, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 18,067-18,074.
  4. Chow, J.C. (1995) Measurement methods to determine compliance with ambient air quality standards for suspended particles, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 45,320-382.
  5. Chun, M.-Y. and H.-K. Kim (1995) Concentration of particulate nitrate classified by formation mechanism in Seoul ambient air, J. Korean Air Poll. Control Assoc., 11, 37-44. (in Korean with English abstract)
  6. Ghim, Y.S. (2005) Issues and tasks for air quality management in the greater Seoul area, J. Enviorn. Policy, 4(1), 1-19. (in Korean with English abstract)
  7. Ghim, Y.S. and J.Y. Kim (2004) Variations of NMHC and fine particles in Seoul in June 2001, Korean J. Atmos. Environ., 20, 87-97. (in Korean with English abstract)
  8. Ghim, Y.S., K. Jung, and M.H. Kang (2009) Temporal and spatial variations in fine particles in the Seoul metropolitan area between 2002 and 2008, 7th JSAEKOSAE Joint Symposium, September 17, Yokohama, Japan.
  9. Ghim, Y.S., Y.J. Kim, and J.Y. Kim (2001) Influences of air trajectories on the variations of carbon monoxide in major cities in Korea for the year of 1999, Korean J. Atmos. Environ., 17, 451-461. (in Korean with English abstract)
  10. Han, J., M. Lee, and Y.S. Ghim (2008) Cluster analysis of $PM_{10}$ concentrations from urban air monitoring network in Korea during 2000 to 2005, Korean J. Atmos. Environ., 24, 300-309. (in Korean with English abstract)
  11. Han, J.-S., B.-G. Kim, and S.-D. Kim (1996) Chemical composition of fine aerosol associated with visibility degradation in Seoul metropolitan area in 1994, J. Korean Air Poll. Control Assoc., 12, 377-387. (in Korean with English abstract)
  12. Kang, B.-W. and H.S. Lee (2002) A study on the volatilization of particulate nitrate (${NO_3}^-$) during fine particle ($PM_{2.5}$) measurement, Korean J. Atmos. Environ., 18, 297-303. (in Korean with English abstract)
  13. Kang, C.-M., H.S. Lee, B.-W. Kang, S.-K. Lee, and Y. Sunwoo (2004) Chemical characteristics of acidic gas pollutants and $PM_{2.5}$ species during hazy episodes in Seoul, South Korea, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 4749-4760.
  14. Kim, H.-S., J.-B. Huh, P.K. Hopke, T.M. Holsen, and S.-M. Yi (2007) Characteristics of the major chemical constituents of $PM_{2.5}$ and smog events in Seoul, Korea in 2003 and 2004, Atmospheric Environment, 41, 6762-6770.
  15. Kim, J.Y. and Y.P. Kim (2007) Quantification of sampling artifacts in $PM_{2.5}$ inorganic ion species using Teflon filter, Korean J. Atmos. Environ., 23, 74-83. (in Korean with English abstract)
  16. Kim, K.-H., V.K. Mishra, C.-H. Kang, K.C. Choi, Y.J. Kim, and D.S. Kim (2006) The ionic compositions of fine and coarse particle fractions in the two urban areas of Korea, J. Environ. Manage., 78, 170-182.
  17. Kim, S.-W., S.-C. Yoon, and J. Kim (2008) Columnar Asian dust particle properties observed by sun/sky radiometers from 2000 to 2006 in Korea, Atmospheric Environment, 42, 492-504.
  18. Kim, Y.J., K.W. Kim, S.D. Kim, B.K. Lee, and J.S. Han (2006) Fine particulate matter characteristics and its impact on visibility impairment at two urban sites in Korea: Seoul and Incheon, Atmospheric Environment, 40, S593-S605.
  19. Krueger, B.J., V.H. Grassian, A. Laskin, and J.P. Cowin (2003) The transformation of solid atmospheric particles into liquid droplets through heterogeneous chemistry: laboratory insights into the processing of calciumcontaining mineral dust aerosol in the troposphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, doi:10.1029/2002GL016563.
  20. Lee, B.K., Y.H. Kim, J.Y. Ha, and D.S. Lee (2005) Development of an automated and continuous analysis system for $PM_{2.5}$ and chemical characterization of the $PM_{2.5}$ in the atmosphere at Seoul, Korean J. Atmos. Environ., 21, 439-458. (in Korean with Englishabstract)
  21. Lee, H.-W., T.-J. Lee, and D.-S. Kim (2009) Identifying ambient $PM_{2.5}$ sources and estimating their contributions by using PMF: Separation of gasoline and diesel automobile sources by analyzing ECs and OCs, Korean J. Atmos. Environ., 25, 75-89. (in Korean with English abstract)
  22. Lee, S., Y.S. Ghim, Y.P. Kim, and J.Y. Kim (2006) Estimation of seasonal variation of particulate nitrate and sensitivity to the emission changes in the greater Seoul area, Atmospheric Environment, 40, 3724-3736.
  23. Lee, T., X.-Y. Yu, B. Ayres, S.M. Kreidenweis, W.C. Malm, and J.L. Collett, Jr. (2008) Observations of fine and coarse particle nitrate at several rural locations inthe United States, Atmospheric Environment, 42, 2720-2732.
  24. Ma, Y., R.J. Weber, Y.-N. Lee, D.A. Orsini, K. Maxwell-Meier, D.C. Thornton, A.R. Bandy, A.D. Clarke, D.R. Blake, G.W. Sachse, H.E. Fuelberg, C.M. Kiley, J.- H. Woo, D.G. Streets, and G.R. Carmichael (2003) Characteristics and influence of biosmoke on the fine-particle ionic composition measured in Asianoutflow during the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D21), 8816, doi:10.1029/2002JD003128.
  25. Maxwell-Meier, K., R. Weber, C. Song, D. Orsini, Y. Ma, G.R. Carmichael, and D.G. Streets (2004) Inorganic composition of fine particles in mixed mineral dustpollution plumes observed from airborne measurements during ACE-Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19S07, doi:10.1029/2003JD004464.
  26. NARSTO (2004) Particulate Matter Assessment for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment, Edited by P. McMurry, M. Shepherd, and J. Vickery, CambridgeUniversity Press, Cambridge, England, http://www.
  27. Ooki, A. and M. Uematsu (2005), Chemical interactions between mineral dust particles and acid gases during Asian dust events, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D03201, doi:10.1029/2004JD004737.
  28. Seinfeld, J.H. and S. Pandis (1998) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution and Climate Change, Wiley Interscience, New York, NY.
  29. Sohn, D.-H. and M.-Y. Heo (1986) Concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particulate matters, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate salts in urban air, J. Korean Air Poll. Control Assoc., 2(3), 27-33. (in Korean with English abstract)
  30. Sullivan, R.C., S.A. Guazzotti, D.A. Sodeman, and K.A. Prather (2007) Direct observations of the atmospheric processing of Asian mineral dust, AtmosphericChem. Phys., 7, 1213-1236.
  31. USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (2004) Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, EPA/600/P-99/002aF, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  32. Van Dingenen, R., F. Raes, J.-P. Putaud, U. Baltensperger, A. Charron, M.-C. Facchini, S. Decesari, S. Fuzzi, R. Gehrig, H.-C. Hansson, R.M. Harrison, C. Huglin, A.M. Jones, P. Laj, G. Lorbeer, W. Maenhaut, F. Palmgren, X. Querol, S. Rodriguez, J. Schneider, H. ten Brink, P. Tunved, K. Torseth, B. Wehner, E. Weingartner, A. Wiedensohler, and P. Wåhlin (2004) A European aerosol phenomenology-2: physical characteristics of particulate matter at kerbside, urban, rural and background sites in Europe, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 2561-2577.
  33. Virkkula, A., K. Teinila, R. Hillamo, V.-M. Kerminen, S. Saarikoski, M. Aurela, I. K. Koponen, and M. Kulmala (2006) Chemical size distributions of boundary layer aerosol over the Atlantic Ocean and at an Antarctic site, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05306, doi:10.1029/2004JD004958.
  34. Watson, J.G., N.F. Robinson, E.M. Fujita, J.C. Chow, T.G. Pace, C. Lewis, and T. Coulter (1998) CMB8 Applications and Validation Protocol for $PM_{2.5}$ and VOCs, Document No. 1808.2D1, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV.
  35. Zhuang, H., C.K. Chan, M. Fang, and A.S. Wexler (1999) Formation of nitrate and non-sea-salt sulfate on coarse particles, Atmospheric Environment, 33,4223-4233.

Cited by

  1. fine particulate matter for Asian dust and haze events of 2010-2011 at Gosan site in Jeju Island vol.27, pp.1, 2014,
  2. Investigation of PM2.5 Pollution Episodes in Gwangju vol.31, pp.3, 2015,
  3. Ion Compositional Existence Forms of PM10 in Seoul Area vol.37, pp.4, 2015,
  4. Concentration Variations in Primary and Secondary Particulate Matter near a Major Road in Korea vol.10, pp.1, 2016,
  5. Classification of diurnal patterns of particulate inorganic ions downwind of metropolitan Seoul vol.23, pp.9, 2016,
  6. Comparison of PM2.5 Concentrations by Measurement Method vol.33, pp.5, 2017,
  7. Characteristics of PM10 in Gwangju Using Factor Analysis vol.27, pp.4, 2018,


Supported by : 국립환경과학원