Emission Characteristics of Elemental Constituents in Fine Particulate Matter Using a Semi-continuous Measurement System

준 실시간 측정시스템을 이용한 미세입자 원소성분 배출특성 조사

  • Park, Seung-Shik (Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonnam National University) ;
  • Ondov, John M. (Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland)
  • Received : 2010.01.22
  • Accepted : 2010.04.15
  • Published : 2010.04.30


Fine particulate matter < $1.8{\mu}m$ was collected as a slurry using the Semicontinuous Elements in Aerosol Sampler with time resolution of 30-min between May 23 and 27, 2002 at the Sydney Supersite, Florida, USA. Concentrations of 11 elements, i.e., Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, in the collected slurry samples were determined off-line by simultaneous multi-element graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Temporal profiles of $SO_2$ and elemental concentrations combined with meteorological parameters such as wind direction and wind speed indicate that some transient events in their concentrations are highly correlated with the periods when the plume from an animal feed supplement processing facility influenced the Sydney sampling site. The peaking concentrations of the elemental species during the transient events varied clearly as the plume intensity varied, but the relative concentrations for As, Cr, Pb, and Zn with respect to Cd showed almost consistent values. During the transient events, metal concentrations increased by factors of >10~100 due to the influence of consistent plumes from an individual stationary source. Also the multi-variate air dispersion receptor model, which was previously developed by Park et al. (2005), was applied to ambient $SO_2$ and 8 elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) measurements between 20:00 May 23 and 09:30 May 24 when winds blew from between 70 and $85^{\circ}$, in which animal feed processing plant is situated, to determine emission and ambient source contributions rates of $SO_2$ and elements from one animal feed processing plant. Agreement between observed and predicted $SO_2$ concentrations was excellent (R of 0.99; and their ratio, $1.09{\pm}0.35$) when one emission source was used in the model. Average ratios of observed and predicted concentrations for As, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn varied from $0.83{\pm}0.26$ for Pb to $1.12{\pm}0.53$ for Cd.


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. Baird, C. (1995) Environmental Chemistry, 2nd Ed., W.H. Freemanand Co., U.S.A., 347-381.
  2. Carter, J.D., A.G. Gjop, J.M. Samet, and R.B. Devlin (1997)Cytokine production by human airway epithelialcells after exposure to an air pollution particles ismetal-dependent, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol, 46,180-188.
  3. Choi, S.W. and H.D. Song (2000) Source characteristics ofparticulate trace metals in Daegu area, Korean J. ofAtmos. Environ., 16(5), 469-475. (in Korean withEnglish abstract)
  4. Chow, J.C., J.G. Watson, H. Kuhns, V. Etyemezian, D.H. Lowenthal,D. Crow, S.D. Kohl, J.P. Engelbrecht, andM.C. Green (2004) Source profiles for industrial,mobile, and area sources in the big bend regionalaerosol visibility and observational study, Chemosphere,54, 185-208.
  5. Gordon, G.E. (1988) Receptor models, Environ. Sci. Technol.,22, 1132-1142.
  6. Kang, B.W., H.S. Lee, and H.K. Kim (2000) Source identificationof fine particle $(PM_{2.5})$ in Chongju using achemical mass balance model, 16(5), 477-485. (in Korean with English abstract)
  7. Kennedy, T., A.J. Ghio, W. Reed, J. Samet, J. Zagorski, J.Quay, J. Carter, L. Dailey, J.R. Hoidal, and R.B.Devlin (1998) Copper-dependent inflammation andnuclear $factor-{\kappa}B$ activation by particulate air pollution,American J. Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 19, 366-378.
  8. Kidwell, C.B. and J.M. Ondov (2001) Development and evaluationof a prototype system for collecting sub-hourlyambient aerosol for chemical analysis, Aerosol Sci.Technol., 35, 596-601.
  9. Kidwell, C.B. and J.M. Ondov (2004) Elemental analysis ofsub-hourly ambient aerosol collections, AerosolSci. Technol., 38, 205-218.
  10. Laden, F., L. Neas, D. Dockery, and J. Schwartz (2000) Associationof fine particulate matter from differentsources with daily mortality in six U.S. cities, Environ.Health Perspective, 108, 941-947.
  11. Mitcus, R. (2004) Analysis of the role of zinc, a major componentof ambient Baltimore fine particulate matter,in eliciting cytokine and chemokine release anddisrupting cellular tight junctions in vitro, Ph.D.Dissertation, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD.
  12. Pancras, J.P. J.M. Ondov, and R. Zeisler (2005) Multi-elementelectrothermal AAS determination of 11 markerelements in fine ambient aerosol slurry samplescollected with SEAS-II, Anal. Chim. Acta, 538, 303-312.
  13. Park, S.S., J.P. Pancras, J.M. Ondov, and P. Noreen (2005) Anew pseudo-deterministic multivariate receptormodel for individual source apportionment usinghighly time-resolved ambient concentration measurements,J. Geophys. Res., 110, D07S15, doi : 10.1029/2004JD004664.
  14. Park, S.S., J. Patrick Pancras, J.M. Ondov, and A. Robinson(2006) Application of the pseudo-deterministicreceptor model to resolve power plant influenceson air quality in Pittsburgh, Aerosol Sci. Technol.,40, 883-897.
  15. Peters, A., D.W. Dockery, J.E. Muller, and M.A. Mittleman(2001) Increased particle air pollution and triggeringof myocardial infraction, Circulation, 103, 2810-2815.
  16. Rheingrover, S.W. and G.E. Gordon (1988) Wind-trajectorymethod for determining compositions of particlesfrom major air pollution sources, Aerosol Sci. Technol.,8, 29-61.
  17. Schwartz, J., D.W. Dockery, and L.M. Neas (1996) Is dailymortality associated specifically with fine particles?,J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 46, 927-939.
  18. Wichmann, H.E., C. Spix, T. Tuch, G. Wolke, A. Peters, J.Heinrich, W.G. Kreling, and J. Heyder (2000) Dailymortality and fine and ultrafine particles in Erfurt,Germany. Part I : Role of particle number and particlemass, Research Report 98. Health Effects Institute,Cambridge, M.A.

Cited by

  1. Application of Semi-continuous Ambient Aerosol Collection System for Elemental Analysis vol.28, pp.1, 2012,