DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Study of Ozone Photochemistry in Different Physico-chemical Properties of Air Masses around the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) Using Aircraft Observations in 2006

항공관측자료를 이용한 2006년 멕시코시티 주변 기류의 물리-화학적 성질에 따른 오존의 광화학적 특성 연구

  • Song, Sang-Keun (Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National University) ;
  • Shon, Zang-Ho (Department of Environmental Engineering, Dong-Eui University) ;
  • Kim, Yoo-Keun (Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National University)
  • 송상근 (부산대학교 지구환경시스템학부) ;
  • 손장호 (동의대학교 환경공학과) ;
  • 김유근 (부산대학교 지구환경시스템학부)
  • Received : 2009.11.27
  • Accepted : 2010.04.08
  • Published : 2010.04.30

Abstract

Photochemical characteristics of ozone ($O_3$) and its precursors such as $O_3$ budget and $O_3-NO_x$-VOC sensitivity were analyzed in different physico-chemical properties of air masses around the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using aircraft observations during March 2006. The physico-chemical properties of air masses were categorized into 5 groups: boundary layer (BL), biomass burning (BB), free tropospheric continent (FTCO) and marine (FTMA), and Tula industrial complex (TIC). Results from the $O_3$ budget analysis indicated that $O_3$ production for BL, FTCO, and FTMA (for BB and TIC) was mainly controlled by a photochemical production pathway, a reaction of NO with $HO_2$ (with $RO_2$), while the main pathway of photochemical $O_3$ destruction for BL, FTCO, and FTMA (for BB and TIC) was a reaction of $HO_2$ with $O_3$ (of $H_2$ with $O^1$(D)). In addition, most of air mass categories (especially FTCO) were estimated to be $NO_x$-sensitive for $O_3$ production with lower $NO_y$, higher ratios of the other indicator species (e.g., $O_3/(NO_y-NO_x$), $H_2O_2/HNO_3$, etc.), and the lower removal rate of radicals ($\leq$0.5) by the reaction of OH with $NO_2$ than those of the VOC-sensitive condition.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국학술진흥재단, 동의대학교

References

  1. Brulfert, G., O. Galvez, F. Yang, and J.J. Sloan (2007) A regionalmodelling study of the high ozone episode ofJune 2001 in southern Ontario, Atmospheric Environment,41, 3777-3788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.01.030
  2. Cantrell, C.A., L. Mauldin, M. Zondlo, F. Eisele, E. Kosciuch,R. Shetter, B. Lefer, S. Hall, T. Campos, B. Ridley,J. Walega, A. Fried, B. Wert, F. Flocke, A. Weinheimer,J. Hannigan, M. Coffey, E. Atlas, S. Stephens,B. Heikes, J. Snow, D. Blake, N. Blake, A.Katzenstein, J. Lopez, E.V. Browell, J. Dibb, E.Scheuer, G. Seid, and R. Talbot (2003a) Steady statefree radical budgets and ozone photochemistry duringTOPSE, Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(D4), 8361, doi:10.1029/2002JD002198. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002198
  3. Cantrell, C.A., G.D. Edwards, S. Stephens, L. Mauldin, E.Kosciuch, M. Zondlo, and F. Eisele (2003b) Peroxyradical observations using chemical ionization massspectrometry during TOPSE, Journal of GeophysicalResearch, 108(D6), 8371, doi:10.1029/2002JD002715. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002715
  4. Carroll, M.A., B.A. Ridley, D.D. Montzka, G. Hubler, J.G.Walega, R.B. Norton, B.J. Huebert, and F.E. Grahek(1992) Measurements of nitric oxide and nitrogendioxide during the Mauna Loa Observatory PhotochemistryExperiment, Journal of Geophysical Research,97(D10), 10361-10374. https://doi.org/10.1029/91JD02296
  5. Crounse, J.D., K.A. McKinney, A.J. Kwan, and P.O. Wennberg(2006) Measurement of gas-phase hydroperoxidesby chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS),Analytical Chemistry, 78, 6726-6732. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac0604235
  6. Daum, P.H., L.I. Kleinman, S.R. Springston, L.J. Nunnermacker,Y.-N. Lee, J. Weinstein-Lloyd, J. Zheng, andC.M. Berkowitz (2003) A comparative study of $O_3$formation in the Houston urban and industrialplumes during the TEXAQS 2000 Study, Journal ofGeophysical Research, 108(D23), doi:10.1029/2003JD003552. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003552
  7. Ghim, Y.S. (2000) Trends and factors of ozone concentrationvariations in Korea, Journal of Korean Society forAtmospheric Environment, 16(6), 607-623. (inKorean with English abstract)
  8. Gregory, G.L., H.E. Fuelberg, S.P. Longmore, B.E. Anderson,J.E. Collins, and D.R. Blake (1996) Chemical characteristicsof tropospheric air over the tropical SouthAtlantic Ocean: Relationship to trajectory history,Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(D19), 23957-23972, doi:10.1029/96JD01160. https://doi.org/10.1029/96JD01160
  9. Hayden, K.L., K.G. Anlauf, S.-M. Li, A.M. Macdonald, J.W.Bottenheim, J.R. Brook, and H.A. Wiebe (2004)Characterization of gaseous nitrogen oxides in theLower Fraser Valley during Pacific 2001, AtmosphericEnvironment, 38, 5811-5823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.12.048
  10. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007)Climate change 2007: the Physical Science Basis,Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth assessmentreport of the Intergovernmental panel on climatechange, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  11. Jacob, D.J., B.J. Heikes, S.-M. Fan, J.A. Logan, D.L. Mauzerall,J.D. Bradshaw, H.B. Singh, G.L. Gregory, R.W.Talbot, D.R. Blake, and G.W. Sachse (1996) Originof ozone and $NO_x$ in the tropical troposphere: Aphotochemical analysis of aircraft observations overthe South Atlantic basin, Journal of GeophysicalResearch, 101, 24235-24250. https://doi.org/10.1029/96JD00336
  12. Kim, J.H. and Y.P. Kim (2003) The daily ozone concentrationsat Gwanak and City hall: measurement data between1996 and 2000, Journal of Korean Society for AtmosphericEnvironment, 19(5), 611-619. (in Koreanwith English abstract)
  13. Kim, J.Y. and Y.S. Ghim (2001) Modeling the 1997 Highozoneepisode in the greater Seoul area with densely-distributedmeteorological observations, Journal ofKorean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 17(1),1-17. (in Korean with English abstract)
  14. Kim, Y.-K., I.-B. Oh, Y.-H. Kang, and M.-K. Hwang (2007)Modeling of the air pollutant recirculation usingthe MM5-CAMx on ozone episode in greater Seoularea during June, 2004, Journal of Korean Societyfor Atmospheric Environment, 23(3), 297-310. (inKorean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.5572/KOSAE.2007.23.3.297
  15. Kleinman, L.I. (2005) The dependence of tropospheric ozoneproduction rate on ozone precursors, AtmosphericEnvironment, 39, 575-586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.08.047
  16. Kleinman, L.I., P.H. Daum, D. Imre, Y.-N. Lee, L.J. Nunnermacker,S.R. Springston, J. Weinstein-Lloyd, andJ. Rudolph (2002) Ozone production rate and hydrocarbonreactivity in 5 urban areas: A cause of highozone concentration in Houston, Geophysical ResearchLetters, 29, doi:10.1029/2001GL014569. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL014569
  17. Kleinman, L.I., P.H. Daum, D.G. Imre, J.H. Lee, Y.N. Lee,L.J. Nunnermacker, S.R. Springston, J.W. Lloyd,and L. Newman (2000) Ozone production in theNew York city urban plume, Journal of GeophysicalResearch, 105, 14495-14511. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900011
  18. Kleinman, L.I., P.H. Daum, J.H. Lee, Y.-N. Lee, L.J. Nunnermacker,S.R. Springston, L. Newman, J. Weinstein-Lloyd, and S. Sillman (1997) Dependence of ozoneproduction on NO and hydrocarbons in the troposphere,Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 2299-2302. https://doi.org/10.1029/97GL02279
  19. Kleinman, L.I., P.H. Daum, Y.-N. Lee, L.J. Nunnermacker,S.R. Springston, J. Weinstein-Lloyd, and J. Rudolph(2001) Sensitivity of ozone production rate to ozoneprecursors, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 2903-2906. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012597
  20. Koike, M., Y. Kondo, K. Kita, N. Takegawa, Y. Masui, Y.Miyazaki, M.W. Ko, A.J. Weinheimer, F. Flocke,R.J. Weber, D.C. Thornton, G.W. Sachse, S.A. Vay,D.R. Blake, D.G. Streets, F.L. Eisele, S.T. Sandholm,H.B. Singh, and R.W. Talbot (2003) Exportof anthropogenic reactive nitrogen and sulfur compoundsfrom the East Asia region in spring, Journalof Geophysical Research, 108(D20), 8789, doi:10.1029/2002JD003284. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003284
  21. Lee, J.H., J.S. Han, H.K. Yun, and S.Y. Cho (2007) Evaluationof incremental reactivity and ozone production contributionof VOCs Using the PAMS data in SeoulMetropolitan Area, Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 23(3), 286-296. (in Korean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.5572/KOSAE.2007.23.3.286
  22. Li, Q., D.J. Jacob, I. Bey, Y.M. Yantosca, Y. Zhao, Y. Kondo,and J. Notholt (2000) Atmospheric hydrogen cyanide(HCN): biomass burning source, ocean sink?, GeophysicalResearch Letters, 27, 357-360. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999GL010935
  23. Lin, C.Y., Z. Wang, C.C.-K. Chou, C.C. Chang, and S.C. Liu(2007) A numerical study of an autumn high ozoneepisode over southwestern Taiwan, AtmosphericEnvironment, 41, 3684-3701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.050
  24. Mao, J., X. Ren, S. Chen, W.H. Brune, Z. Chen, M. Martinez,H. Harder, B. Lefer, B. Rappenglück, J. Flynn, andM. Leuchner (2009) Atmospheric oxidation capacityin the summer of Houston 2006: Comparison withsummer measurements in other metropolitan studies,Atmospheric Environment, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.01.013 (in press). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.01.013
  25. Nunnermacker, L.J., L.I. Kleinman, D. Imre, P.H. Daum, Y.-N.Lee, J.H. Lee, S.R. Springston, L. Newman, and N.Gillani (2000) $NO_y$ lifetimes and $O_3$ production efficiencies in urban and power plant plumes: Analysisof field data, Journal of Geophysical Research,105(D7), 9165-9176, 10.1029/1999JD900753. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD900753
  26. Raga, G. and A. Raga (2000) On the formation of an elevatedozone peak in Mexico City, Atmospheric Environment,34, 4097-4102. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00070-4
  27. Raga, G., D. Baumgardner, T. Castro, A. Martinez-Arroyo,and R. Navarro-Gonzalez (2001) Mexico City airquality: A qualitative review of gas and aerosolmeasurements (1960-2000), Atmospheric Environment,35, 4041-4058. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00157-1
  28. Seinfeld, J.H. and S. Pandis (1998) In: Atmospheric Chemistryand Physics, Wiley Interscience, New York.
  29. Shetter, R.E., L. Cinquini, B.L. Lefer, S.R. Hall, and S. Madronich(2002) Comparison of airborne measured andcalculated spectral actinic flux and derived photolysisfrequencies during the PEM Tropics B mission,Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 8234, doi:10.1029/2001JD001320. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001320
  30. Shon, Z.-H. (2005) Case study of ozone photochemistry in theSeoul metropolitan area during the summer 2003,Journal of the Environmental Sciences, 14(8), 749-760. (in Korean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.5322/JES.2005.14.8.749
  31. Shon, Z.-H. (2006) Photochemical analysis of ozone episodesin the metropolitan area of Seoul during the summer2004, Journal of Korean Society for AtmosphericEnvironment, 22(3), 361-371. (in Korean with English abstract)
  32. Shon, Z.-H., S. Madronich, S.-K. Song, F.M. Flocke, D.J.Knapp, R.S. Anderson, R.E. Shetter, C.A. Cantrell,S.R. Hall, and X. Tie (2008) Characteristics of the$NO-NO_2-O_3$ system in different chemical regimesduring the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign, AtmosphericChemistry and Physics, 8, 7153-7164. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-7153-2008
  33. Sillman, S. (1995) The use of $NO_y$, HCHO, $H_2O_2\;and\;HNO_3$ as indicators for $ozone-NO_x-hydrocarbon$ sensitivity in urban locations, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 14175-14188. https://doi.org/10.1029/94JD02953
  34. Sillman, S. (1999) The relation between ozone, $NO_x$ and hydrocarbons in urban and polluted rural environments, Atmospheric Environment, 33, 1821-1845. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00345-8
  35. Sillman, S. and D. He (2002) Some theoretical results concerning$O_3-NO_x-VOC$ chemistry and $NO_x-VOC$ indicators, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(D22),4659, doi:10.1029/2001JD001123. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001123
  36. Sillman, S. and J.J. West (2009) Reactive nitrogen in MexicoCity and its relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity:results from photochemical models, AtmosphericChemistry and Physics, 9, 3477-3489. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-3477-2009
  37. Sillman, S., J.A. Logan, and S.C. Wofsy (1990) The sensitivityof ozone to nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons inregional ozone episodes, Journal of GeophysicalResearch, 95, 1837-1851. https://doi.org/10.1029/JD095iD02p01837
  38. Slusher, D.L., L.G. Huey, D.J. Tanner, F.M. Flocke, J.M.Roberts (2004) A thermal dissociation-chemicalionization mass spectrometry (TD-CIMS) techniquefor the simultaneous measurement of peroxyacylnitrates and dinitrogen pentoxide, Journal of GeophysicalResearch, 109, D19315, doi:10.1029/2004JD004670. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004670
  39. Song, S.-K. and Z.-H. Shon (2008) Analysis of chemical andmeteorological effects on the concentration differenceof photochemical air pollutants between coastaland inland regions in Busan, Journal of the EnvironmentalSciences, 17(10), 1169-1182. (in Korean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.5322/JES.2008.17.10.1169
  40. Song, S.-K., Y.-K. Kim, and J.-E. Kang (2009) Characteristicsof ozone concentrations around an urban valleybased on the intensive air quality measurement duringspring and summer of 2006, Journal of KoreanSociety for Atmospheric Environment, 25(4), 289-303. (in Korean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.4.289
  41. Song, S.-K., Z.-H. Shon, Y.-K. Kim, Y.-H. Kang, I.-B. Oh,and C.-H. Jung (2010) Influence of ship emissionson ozone concentrations around coastal areas duringsummer season, Atmospheric Environment, 44, 713-723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.11.010
  42. Takegawa, N., Y. Kondo, M. Koike, G. Chen, T. Machida, T.Watai, D.R. Blake, D.G. Streets, J.-H. Woo, G.R.Carmichael, K. Kita, Y. Miyazaki, T. Shirai, J.B.Liley, and T. Ogawa (2004) Removal of $NO_x$ and$NO_y$ in Asian outflow plumes: Aircraft measurementsover the western Pacific in January 2002, Journal ofGeophysical Research, 109, D23S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD004866. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004866
  43. Thornton, J.A., P.J. Wooldridge, R.C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H.Harder, W.H. Brune, E.J. Williams, J.M. Roberts,F.C. Fehsenfeld, S.R. Hall, R.E. Shetter, B.P. Wert,and A. Fried (2002) Ozone production rate as a functionof $NO_x$ abundances and $HO_x$ production rates in the Nashville urban plume, Journal of GeophysicalResearch, 107(D12), 4146, doi:10.1029/2001JD000932. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000932
  44. Tie, X., S. Madronich, G.H. Li, Z. Ying, R. Zhang, A.R. Garcia,J. Lee-Taylor, and Y. Liu (2007) Characterizationsof chemical oxidants in Mexico City: A regionalchemical dynamical model (WRF-Chem) study,Atmospheric Environment, 41, 1989-2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.053
  45. Wang, T., Y.Y. Wu, T.F. Cheung, and K.S. Lam (2001) Astudy of surface ozone and the relation to complexwind flow in Hong Kong, Atmospheric Environment,23, 1812-1826.
  46. Weinheimer, A.J., D.D. Montzka, T.L. Campos, J.G. Walega,B.A. Ridley, S.G. Donnelly, E.R. Keim, L.A. DelNegro, M.H. Proffitt, J.J. Margitan, K.A. Boering,A.E. Andrews, B.C. Daube, S.C. Wofsy, B.E. Anderson,J.E. Collins, G.W. Sachse, S.A. Vay, J.W.Elkins, P.R. Wamsley, E.L. Atlas, F. Flocke, S.Schauffler, C.R. Webstesr, R.D. May, M. Loewenstein,J.R. Podolske, T.P. Bui, K.R. Chan, S.W.Bowen, M.R. Schoeberl, L.R. Lait, and P.A. Newman(1998) Comparison between DC-8 and ER-2species measurements in the tropical middle troposphere:NO, $NO_y,\;O_3,\;CO_2,\;CH_4,\;and\;N_2O$, Journalof Geophysical Research, 103(D17), 22087-22096, doi:10.1029/98JD01421. https://doi.org/10.1029/98JD01421
  47. Yokelson, R.J., R.J. Yokelson, S.P. Urbanski, E.L. Atlas, D.W.Toohey, E.C. Alvarado, J.D. Crounse, P.O. Wennberg,M.E. Fisher, C.E. Wold, T.L. Campos, K.Adachi, P.R. Buseck, and W.M. Hao (2007) Emissionsfrom forest fires near Mexico City, AtmosphericChemistry and Physics, 7, 5569-5584. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-5569-2007